|Exam Name||:||Managing Projects with Microsoft Project 2013|
|Questions and Answers||:||101 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||March 22, 2018|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||70-343 Brain Dump|
|Get Full Version||:||Pass4sure 70-343 Full Version|
Title: C-level/President supervisor VP workforce (associate/Analyst/etc.) Directorcharacteristic:
role in IT choice-making system: Align business & IT desires Create IT method investigate IT needs manipulate supplier Relationships evaluate/Specify brands or carriers different position Authorize Purchases now not worriedWork mobile: company: enterprise size: industry: street tackle metropolis: Zip/postal code State/Province: nation:
on occasion, we ship subscribers particular offers from select companions. Would you want to receive these special associate presents by way of e mail? yes No
Your registration with Eweek will include the following free e-mail publication(s): information & Views
via submitting your instant number, you compromise that eWEEK, its related homes, and seller partners proposing content you view may contact you the usage of contact middle know-how. Your consent is not required to view content or use web page features.
via clicking on the "Register" button beneath, I agree that I actually have cautiously read the phrases of provider and the privateness coverage and i agree to be legally sure by all such phrases.
Registerproceed devoid of consent
(MENAFN Editorial) FluentPro has launched its new superior Governance and Administration Suite that will help client exact managers and PMOs with complete administration of Microsoft workplace 365 venture on-line. Redmond, Washington, November thirtieth, 2017: leading Redmond-based mostly application construction business FluentPro has currently launched its brand new Governance and Administration Suite for agencies the use of Microsoft office 365 undertaking on-line. FluentPro G.A. Suite is a state of the paintings SAAS management platform that assures a person-pleasant and complete toolset for holistic management of Microsoft project online environments. The program also helps agencies with IT service management (ITSM) compliance and big selection of analytics for an recommended size of the performance of challenge online.
'we are joyful to announce the launch of our new FluentPro G.A. Suite for groups working with Microsoft workplace 365 task on-line. This effective SAAS management device will cope with comprehensive management of the lifecycle of Microsoft workplace 365 challenge online environments. From configuration management to Configuration Audit to Configuration Migration to Configuration change administration to Documenting to catastrophe Backup & Restoration- our G.A. Suite will shoulder each aspect of governance and administration of Microsoft venture online and SharePoint records for you. it be only one single web solution to care for every little thing about your workplace 365 undertaking on-line operation and administration. Put readily, our G.A. Suite is the an awful lot desired addition that every enterprise the use of Microsoft workplace 365 assignment on-line became waiting for thus lengthy, smiled the leading spokesperson from FluentPro.the new advanced FluentProG.A. Suite will extra help customer-organizations to establish business-leading practices in compliance with IT service administration involving workplace 365 project on-line. The spokesperson additionally mentioned about provision of adoption analytics, usage analytics in addition to governance capabilities for prime managers and PMOs working with assignment on-line.
founded in 2009, FluentPro is a reputed Microsoft Gold-licensed partner in challenge Portfolio management and one of the crucial biggest names in utility construction and implementation business with Microsoft PPM skills. The Redmond-primarily based setup is typical for offering unique configuration administration, integration and migration utility products. The enterprise is backed with the aid of an extended elite list of shoppers together with 22 Fortune 500 enterprises.Over time, FluentPro has delivered more than a hundred custom options for both Microsoft venture Server and task on-line. The business is backed by means of nearly 20 pro consultants and developers who have been working exclusively on venture online or challenge online implementation and administration for several years.
talking further, the spokesperson wired on a customer-centric approach in each element of their carrier at an affordable rate.'We at all times follow a customer-centric method to be sure your business needs and pastimes are addressed at their most suitable. Our partnership with consumers commences with utilization of our solutions but is never restricted there. We have in mind adoption of leading edge Microsoft undertaking Server or SharePoint calls for professional support and features and FluentPro has your back here. From consultation to planning to implementation to administration to deployment to mapping business intelligence to custom utility construction- we take care of every little thing for you.
FluentPro additionally helps its customer-groups with professional report construction features on Microsoft assignment Server or SharePoint performance.For more advice, seek advice from
Media ContactCompany name: FluentPro software CorporationContact person: Anton KravtsovEmail:cell: (855) 358-3688Address:8201 164th Ave NE, Ste 200City: RedmondState: WACountry: United StatesWebsite:
MENAFN3011201700703268ID1096168946Microsoft Office 365 Project Online"/>
Albany, ny -- (SBWIRE) -- 12/05/2017 -- In latest know-how-oriented world, the upward thrust of information superhighway usage has been a essential ingredient in promotion the introduction of information superhighway-based mostly application and solutions. right now, on-line undertaking management software is regarded as a suitable alternative to support company teams charge easily comprehensive a assignment on time. a new examine in line with the world demand and market scenario of online project management utility has been broadcasted to the wide repository of Market research Hub (MRH), which is titled as "on-line venture management application Market - global industry analysis, size, Share, boom, tendencies, and Forecast 2017 – 2025". according to this study key findings, the world on-line venture management utility market will probably upward push at a CAGR of 9.three% from 2017 to 2025 to achieve a price of US$6.08 bn by means of 2025.
Request Free sample record: https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?classification=S&repid=1370910
The research identifies that the demand for on-line venture management software is high from first-time users of venture administration application and solutions. one of the most best factors analyzed via the examine is that the emergence and proliferation of e-commerce have fueled the number of online transactions performed globally. This has resulted in massive uptake of retail online mission management utility and other forms of such application.
at the start, the file commences with a quick introduction of the online mission management software market. The file analyzes and validates the historical growth curve exhibited by way of the market. The figures offered in the report are up-to-date and offers a incredibly correct picture of the market's efficiency in contemporary years. The record supplies an in-depth evaluation of dissimilar features that are likely to impact the increase of the market all the way through the forecast duration (2017-2022). in this file, the reader will profit counsel about main components supporting the market's increase. Geographically, the record items a actual outlook of the market in some of the best areas, similar to North america, Europe, Asia Pacific, South the united states, Latin the usa and middle East and Africa (MEA). North the united states accounts for most of the income generated within the international online venture management software market.
Key Highlights from the look at
- when it comes to geography, Asia Pacific is expected to outshine all different regions in boom expense, on account of the transforming into focus among SMEs and lengthening investments in cloud and mobility in setting up international locations corresponding to India, Singapore, and Malaysia.
- The different conclusion-clients within the world on-line undertaking administration application market are small and medium sized corporations, huge businesses, and government. Of them, the enormous companies are liable for generating many of the salary available in the market.
- A sizeable vogue available in the market is the thrust on partnerships and mergers and acquisitions which is resulting in market consolidation. having said that, posing a hindrance to the on-line assignment management application market is the strict rules which stay away from hassle-free introduction and implementation of inventive solutions and techniques in the online mission administration application market.
Browse Full record with TOC- https://www.marketresearchhub.com/report/online-undertaking-administration-utility-market-global-trade-evaluation-measurement-share-growth-developments-and-forecast-2017-2025-document.html
at last, the examine concludes with an important component of the aggressive panorama which highlights the important thing players active available in the market. the important thing market avid gamers profiled in this study consist of Microsoft organization, ServiceNow, Inc., Oracle employer, SAP SE, Autodesk, Inc., Unit 4, Aconex restricted, NetSuite Inc., Deltek, Citrix methods, Inc., Workfront, Inc., Atlassian Corp PLC, Zoho agency, Wrike, Inc., Basecamp, LLC, Smartsheet.com, Inc., Mavenlink, and Asana, Inc.
Enquire about this document- https://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.Hypertext Preprocessor?classification=enquiry&repid=1370910
About Market research HubMarket research Hub (MRH) is a subsequent-technology reseller of analysis reviews and analysis. MRH's expansive collection of market analysis reviews has been cautiously curated to help key personnel and decision makers throughout industry verticals to evidently visualize their operating environment and take strategic steps.
MRH services as an integrated platform for here products and services: objective and sound market forecasts, qualitative and quantitative analysis, incisive perception into defining trade developments, and market share estimates. Our recognition lies in supplying price and world-category capabilities to our customers.
Contact Us90 State highway,Albany, the big apple 12207,United StatesToll Free : 800-998-4852 (US-Canada)e mail : firstname.lastname@example.orgWebsite : https://www.marketresearchhub.com/study business information at - https://www.industrynewsanalysis.com/
Unquestionably it is hard assignment to pick dependable certification questions/answers assets regarding review, reputation and validity since individuals get sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets concerning exam dumps update and validity. The vast majority of other's sham report dissension customers come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams joyfully and effortlessly. We never trade off on our review, reputation and quality on the grounds that killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer certainty is imperative to us. Uniquely we deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report objection, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. On the off chance that you see any false report posted by our rivals with the name killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com protest or something like this, simply remember there are constantly awful individuals harming reputation of good administrations because of their advantages. There are a huge number of fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams hone questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, our specimen questions and test brain dumps, our exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.
Killexams NailTech past exams | Killexams AEPA brain dump | Killexams HP0-A02 exam questions | Killexams HH0-110 exam dumps | Killexams 350-025 practice questions | Killexams 70-467 sample questions | Killexams HP2-N48 practical test | Killexams E20-324 real questions | Killexams 1Z1-456 test prep | Killexams BH0-008 Q&A | Killexams LOT-402 sample test | Killexams 646-363 braindump | Killexams 70-462 test questions | Killexams C_TPLM30_67 Practice Test | Killexams 650-196 real test | Killexams HP2-T17 practice questions | Killexams CV0-001 | Killexams C2010-576 | Killexams 642-104 | Killexams NS0-506 |
Kill your 70-343 exam at first attempt!
We are generally especially mindful that an imperative issue in the IT business is that there is a nonattendance of significant worth consider materials. Our exam preparation material gives all of you that you should take an affirmation examination. Our Microsoft 70-343 Exam will give you exam request with affirmed answers that mirror the genuine exam. We at killexams.com are made plans to empower you to clear your 70-343 accreditation test with high scores.
Cause the main thing that is in any capacity critical here is passing the Microsoft 70-343 exam. Cause all that you require is a high score of Microsoft 70-343 exam. The only a solitary thing you need to do is downloading Examcollection 70-343 exam consider coordinates now. We won't let you down with our unrestricted guarantee. The specialists in like manner keep pace with the most best in class exam to give most of invigorated materials. One year free access to have the ability to them through the date of procurement. Every candidate may bear the cost of the Microsoft exam dumps through killexams.com requiring little to no effort. Habitually there is a markdown for anyone all.
Inside seeing the bona fide exam substance of the mind dumps at killexams.com you can without a lot of an extend develop your claim to fame. For the IT specialists, it is basic to enhance their capacities as showed by their work need. We make it basic for our customers to carry certification exam with the help of killexams.com affirmed and honest to goodness exam material. For an awesome future in its domain, our mind dumps are the best decision.
Killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for all exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for All Orders
A best dumps creating is a basic segment that makes it straightforward for you to take Microsoft accreditations. In any case, Microsoft braindumps PDF offers settlement for candidates. The IT assertion is a critical troublesome endeavor if one doesn't find genuine course as obvious resource material. Thus, we have genuine and invigorated substance for the arranging of affirmation exam.
killexams.com top rate 70-343 Exam Testing Tool is very facilitating for our customers for the exam preparation. All important features, topics and definitions are highlighted in brain dumps pdf. Gathering the data in one place is a true time saver and helps you prepare for the IT certification exam within a short time span. The 70-343 certification offers key points. The killexams.com pass4sure dumps helps to memorize the important features or concepts of the 70-343 certification
At killexams.com, we provide thoroughly reviewed Microsoft 70-343 training resources which are the best for clearing 70-343 test, and to get certified by Microsoft. It is a best choice to accelerate your career as a professional in the Information Technology industry. We are proud of our reputation of helping people clear the 70-343 test in their very first attempts. Our success rates in the past two years have been absolutely impressive, thanks to our happy customers who are now able to propel their careers in the fast lane. killexams.com is the number one choice among IT professionals, especially the ones who are looking to climb up the hierarchy levels faster in their respective organizations. Microsoft is the industry leader in information technology, and getting certified by them is a guaranteed way to succeed with IT careers. We help you do exactly that with our high quality Microsoft 70-343 training materials. Microsoft 70-343 is omnipresent all around the world, and the business and software solutions provided by them are being embraced by almost all the companies. They have helped in driving thousands of companies on the sure-shot path of success. Comprehensive knowledge of Microsoft products are considered a very important qualification, and the professionals certified by them are highly valued in all organizations.
We provide real 70-343 pdf exam questions and answers braindumps in two formats. Download PDF & Practice Tests. Pass Microsoft 70-343 book Exam quickly & easily. The 70-343 syllabus PDF type is available for reading and printing. You can print more and practice many times. Our pass rate is high to 98.9% and the similarity percentage between our 70-343 syllabus study guide and real exam is 90% based on our seven-year educating experience. Do you want achievements in the 70-343 exam in just one try? I am currently studying for the Microsoft 70-343 syllabus exam.
Cause all that matters here is passing the Microsoft 70-343 exam. Cause all that you need is a high score of Microsoft 70-343 exam. The only one thing you need to do is downloading Examcollection 70-343 exam study guides now. We will not let you down with our money-back guarantee. The professionals also keep pace with the most up-to-date exam in order to present with the the majority of updated materials. One year free access to be able to them through the date of buy. Every candidates may afford the Microsoft exam dumps via killexams.com at a low price. Often there is a discount for anyone all.
In the presence of the authentic exam content of the brain dumps at killexams.com you can easily develop your niche. For the IT professionals, it is vital to enhance their skills according to their career requirement. We make it easy for our customers to take certification exam with the help of killexams.com verified and authentic exam material. For a bright future in the world of IT, our brain dumps are the best option.
A top dumps writing is a very important feature that makes it easy for you to take Microsoft certifications. But Microsoft braindumps PDF offers convenience for candidates. The IT certification is quite a difficult task if one does not find proper guidance in the form of authentic resource material. Thus, we have authentic and updated content for the preparation of certification exam.
It is very important to gather to the point material if one wants to save time. As you need lots of time to look for updated and authentic study material for taking the IT certification exam. If you find that at one place, what could be better than this? It
Material and methods: The research was carried out in the Centre of Oncology Branch in Cracow. The survey comprised 60 hospitalized patients as well as 30 healthy subjects from the Małopolska region. The scientific method used was a specially designed questionnaire.
Results: Women with a history of cancer demonstrate a health-oriented approach. The subjects known as the experimental group perform breast self-examinations, regularly visit a gynaecologist, are aware of the most severe mastectomy complication – lymphoedema, and recognize the impact of physical activity on it. Breast cancer operation survivors have a good knowledge of breast cancer and lymphoedema, however, existing shortcomings in practical issues are worrying. On the contrary, the control group neglects regular check-ups, evaluates its own knowledge as negligible and, most surprisingly, is not interested in the subject of breast cancer and lymphoedema, even though the subjects of the group believe that arm swelling is connected to all types of breast cancer surgeries.
Conclusions: Breast cancer survivors have a good knowledge of their disorder but are still lacking some essential information. Respondents from the control group have a limited knowledge in the field of cancer and lymphoedema, are not interested in breast cancer matters and are not encouraged by gynaecologists to perform breast self-examinations. Educational prevention programs should develop a health-oriented approach among all women and emphasize their basic role in therapy.Article by ArticleForge
Inquiry from MPUG Linkedin group:What can you tell us about the new MS Project 2013 certification tests? Any study tips?
Answer:Microsoft has issued the availability of two new Microsoft Project 2013 certification tests. The tests are:
74-343 – Managing Projects with Microsoft Project 2013
74-344 – Managing Programs and Projects with Project Server 2013
I took (and passed) the 74-343 desktop test last week and thought it would be helpful to pass along what I observed and a few study suggestions. The two tests have very similar formats and standards.
At the start of the 74-343 exam, you will see a screen that will tell you that the test contains 54 questions and you are allowed 2 hours to take the test; the 74-344 test contains 52 questions and also has a 2 hour time limit. You will then answer some questions regarding your current experience and knowledge level using MS Project 2013. There is also an optional tutorial for taking the test. The survey and tutorial do not take away from the time allotted to take the test.
Most of the questions are multiple choice, but there are a few questions where you will need to place answers in the order in which you would perform an operation.
The question style is from a problem solving point-of-view. The questions are oriented around real-life situations, asking how you would use the software. You will be given a problem condition and asked to supply the best resolution for the situation. An example of this type of question would be:
You need to make dinner. What should you do to achieve this?
A. Read a book
B. Call for hotel reservations
C. Have coffee with a friend
D. Get some food out and start cooking
To study for the test:
Taking the test:
People in most countries have a choice of heading to a Pearson Vue testing center and scheduling the proctored exam or taking it from their own locations (home or work!) through online proctoring.
It is my opinion that the MS Project 2013 tests are harder tests than what we have seen for earlier software versions. Passing these tests will show a thorough understanding of the software. The more experienced users of MS Project and MS Project Server will be able to pass the tests easier than newer users. Just memorizing the buttons is not enough to pass these tests.
Best of luck to you on the test.
After 240 games and 1,043 plate appearances against the New York Yankees, David Ortiz will begin his final series against them on Tuesday at Yankee Stadium. Few players have had more success than Big Papi while battling the most accomplished MLB franchise in history, both in the Bronx and overall. As he gears up for one last assault on pinstripe pitching, here's a run through of some career stats that have helped entrench Ortiz as an all-time great Yankees opponent.
David Ortiz's Career Stats vs. Yankees
Entering Tuesday's three-game series in the Bronx, Ortiz has a .307.397.574 slash line over 884 lifetime at-bats versus the Yankees, to go along with 171 RBIs and 149 runs scored. That .307 average is his highest against any American League team outside of the Astros (who didn't join the AL until 2013) and the Twins (who he played his first six seasons with). While all those stats are robust, contextually they don't move the needle like the next few numbers, which have a chance to get even more impressive with a strong performance this week.
- Out of 98 players with at least 200 games played against the Yankees, only Ted Williams, Manny Ramirez and Jimmie Foxx have a higher OPS than Ortiz’s .970.
- With 53 homers, Ortiz is tied with Hank Greenberg for fourth-most against the Yankees, sitting just two behind Manny Ramirez for third. Some familiar names sit atop that list, with Williams at 62 and Foxx at 70.
MORE: David Ortiz having historic final season
- Ortiz currently ranks third in career doubles versus the Yankees with 75, two behind Ty Cobb. Early-20th century legend Tris Speaker leaves everyone in the dust here, with 95.
Big Papi in Yankee Stadium
As Ortiz loads up for his final chance to inflict pain at Yankee Stadium, he can set his sights on some prestigious milestones for Yankees visitors. One long ball would move him out of a tie with Mickey Vernon and match Goose Goslin, a former teammate of Walter Johnson on the Washington Senators, for the most career home runs as a visitor of any Yankee Stadium.
>> Side bar here, to point out the curious case of Senators first baseman Mickey Vernon and his 31 Yankee Stadium home runs. Something special lit up in Vernon, a native with just 172 career homers, when he came to the Bronx. Vernon went deep every 19.6 at-bats in Yankee Stadium compared to one every 57.6 at-bats the rest of his career. In close to the same amount of plate appearances at home against New York, Vernon cleared the fence just seven times. Now back to Ortiz.
- Ortiz has five multi-homer games against the Yankees, and all of them have come in the Bronx. He’s tied with Ramirez and Goslin for the most multi-homer games on the road versus the Yankees.
MORE: Classic photos of Big Papi
- Ortiz’s OPS of .922 as a Yankees guest is tied with the Tigers’ Charlie Gehringer for third-best among players with at least 500 plate appearances. Ted Williams (1.027) predictably leads the pack, followed by Ty Cobb (1.011).
Ortiz against Yankee pitchers
As you'd expect, there's a multitude of Yankees pitchers on the wrong side of Ortiz's greatness. Three of the top seven hurlers Ortiz has notched the most hits against – Andy Pettitte (24), CC Sabathia (18) and Mike Mussina (18) – spent a significant portion of their careers with the Yankees. Ortiz knocked 13 hits off Mariano Rivera, the most Rivera yielded to any batter. Here's some notables Big Papi did serious damage against:
Hiroki Kuroda: 11-for-23, .478 BA, 1.301 OPS
Chien Ming Wang: 16-for-39, .410 BA, 1.177 OPS
Ivan Nova: 10-for-26, .385 BA, 1.197 OPS
Andy Pettitte: 24-for-70, .343 BA, .907 OPS
Mariano Rivera: 13-for-38, .342 BA, .875 OPS
Ortiz in the postseason
Ortiz’s postseason performance against Boston’s bitter rival gets even better. His 1.065 OPS is second only to George Brett (1.180) among players with at least 50 postseason plate appearances as a Yankees opponent. A .333 average puts him in seventh and is best among Red Sox players. Papi's five postseason homers vs. the Yankees gives him a share of fourth place, and his 17 RBIs are good for third behind Duke Snider (24) and Gil Hodges (19).
- Ortiz currently has the most walk-off hits in MLB postseason history. The last two of those stamped Boston's first two wins of the 2004 ALCS, sparking their legendary comeback from a 3-0 deficit to beat the Yankees:
2004 ALCS Game 4 vs NYY: Walk-off HR off Paul Quantrill in the bottom of the 12th
2004 ALCS Game 5 vs NYY: Walk-off single off Esteban Loaiza in the bottom of the 14th
One final link to the Yankees that highlights Ortiz's iconic status is his inclusion on the ultra-short list of players with 500 home runs and at least three World Series titles. Ortiz is the only non-Yankee with this distinction, grouped with three of the most mythical names the game has seen:
No one will be surprised if Ortiz supplies a few more memorable moments to this rivalry, while altering the record books, by the time Thursday night is through.
Article by ArticleForge
It is widely recognized that the lack of specialization regarding pollinator-plant relationship in common weeds is due to their persistence in time and space (Rodger et al. 2010). The evolutionary trend from generalization to specialization noted in natural ecosystems (Johnson and Steiner 2000) probably does not match the requirements of weeds that grow in arable lands. In these agro-ecosystems, de-specialization seems to be of pivotal importance for insects visiting weed flowers (Huang 2006). Indeed, de-specialization implies a lower risk of pollinator absence due to disturbance (Desneux et al. 2007). Thus, while specialization leads to optimal interaction in a particular ecological niche, it may be a disadvantage when climatic and agronomic conditions impair the appropriate functioning of the insect-weed relationships. Therefore, the specialization occurring among given weeds and insect pollinators could explain their rarity (Sutcliffe and Kay 2000). For instance, the extensive application of pesticides, which is a typical feature of conventional agricultural systems, strongly interferes with the fragile mechanisms that involve rigid insect-flora interactions.
Predominantly, insect-pollinated species have different degrees of specialization depending on the insects involved (Aigner 2001; Shuttleworth and Johnson 2008). Therefore, features such as floral color and symmetry play a key role in plant-pollinator systems (Giurfa et al. 1999; Cooley et al. 2008). Zygomorphic flowers, such as Consolida regalis Gray (Ranunculaceae), E. vulgare L. (Boraginaceae), L. amplexicaule L., and Stachys arvensis (Lamiaceae), are visited mainly by specialized long-tongued bees (e.g., Anthophoridae, Apidae, Melittidae and Megachilidae). This could be due to the particular position of the nectaries (Nilson 1998). A higher number of species visit actinomorphic flowers. For instance, many Asteraceae (e.g., Centaurea cyanus L., Coleostephus myconis (L.) Rchb. f., and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) are visited by a huge number of unspecialized visitors, such as short-tongued bees (e.g., Andrenidae, Colletidae, and Halictidae) and Diptera. R. raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae) also exhibits the typical floral traits of generalized pollination, such as upright, radially symmetric flowers and exposed reproductive organs (Fenster et al. 2004). Lastly, some insect visits appear limited to a restricted botanical group, as observed for some wild bees (referred to as monolectic or oligolectic (specialists)), which tend to visit a small number of plant families, or genera for pollen (Michener 2007). Polylectic bee species (honey bee, bumblebees) have a generalist foraging behavior, i.e they are, less selective in their choice of flower. In intensive cereal farming systems, a clear segregation pattern in the use of floral resources was found between honey bees and wild bees, with the former being tightly associated with mass-flowering crops (oilseed rape, sunflower) and the latter with semi-natural habitats, grasslands, and grassy strips (Rollin et al. 2013). Bumblebees had an intermediate strategy and were found in both oilseed and semi-natural habitats.
The most frequent insects on flowers of a given weed are not necessarily the most efficient pollinators. Indeed, the efficiency of insects as pollinators, especially bees, depends on many factors concerning pollen transport and deposit, such as the particular morphology of the insect body parts (e.g., pollen baskets or hairs), pollen moistening, flower structure or movement patterns of insect visitors (e.g., the speed of insects while handling flowers, species specificity) (Michener 2007). For bees, scopal hairs may show further modification in their density and plumosity in relation to the size and structure of the pollen grains. For example, bee species that frequently collect pollen from Boraginaceae (e.g., Colletes nasutus, Andrena nasuta) have hooked hairs to pull pollen away from anthers located deep in a small corolla (Michener 2007). The use of nectar or oil to moisten pollen loads (e.g., such as Panurginae and Mellitidae with sparse scopae, or Apidae with hind tibial corbiculae) permits considerable flexibility in sizes of pollen grains that may be collected (Thorp 1979). However, moistened pollen is less available for pollination than uncompacted dry pollen (Michener 2007) and decreases the pollination efficiency of bee species. The rapid visits performed by long-tongued bees may result in reduced pollen transport (Fenster et al. 2004). However, the electrostatic forces occurring on pollen can guarantee adhesion to the insect, even if it is lacking in hairy structures (Armbruster 2001). Some floral features enhance the pollen transfer during insect visits. A good example is the small hairs on the keel petal of the corolla (i.e., pollen traps): when the flower wilts, the stigma droops down and meets these hairs. Pollen morphology could also modify efficiency of pollen collection (Fig. 3). For example, the length of the spines on cotton pollen physically interfered with the pollen-aggregating process used by Apidae bees (e.g., honey bees, Vaissière and Vinson 1994). Foraging efficiency depends on matching between corolla depth and proboscis length. Foraging rates of bumblebee with long proboscis, even if they are able to utilize a wide variety of corolla depths, are less efficient on plants with short corollas than short-tongued bumblebees (Brian 1957; Ranta and Lundberg 1980; Graham and Jones 1996). This highlights the importance of the evolution of floral characters to facilitate insect landing and improve pollination efficiency (Nyman 1993). In addition, the relation between flower morphology and self- or cross-pollination has also been confirmed in other species (Kalisz et al. 1999). For instance, self-fertilization in Mimulus guttatus DC. (Scrophulariaceae) is affected by the morphology of the lower corolla lip (Arathi and Kelly 2004).
The foraging activity and the specialization are strongly linked to the relationship between the flowering phenology and the biological traits of visiting insects (Westrich 1989; Fenner 1998; Tylianakis et al. 2005; Michener 2007; Mader et al. 2011). Unlike social bees who are active foragers during many months, adults of many solitary bees are active only for a short season. Thus, they can be specialized on a plant which is in bloom at the same time as their adult flight activity period (Michener 2007; Kirk and Howes 2012). The earliest spring-flying species (e.g., many mining bees such as Andrena chrysoceles, Anthophora plumipes, Osmia rufa with adult flight activity from March to May–June) forage the earliest flowering plants (e.g., Geranium ssp., Lamium ssp.) (Kirk and Howes 2012). On the other hand, the ivy bee (Colletes hederae) is active late in the year (from the end of August for males and from beginning September for females). His emergence coincides with flowering ivy (Hedera helix L.), his main food plant both for pollen and nectar (Michener 2007; Kirk and Howes 2012). For weeds flowering in cool periods, the potential pollinators are represented by insects that can function even at low temperatures, as in the case of early-flowering Amaryllidaceae which are pollinated by cold-tolerant Andrenidae (Herrera 1995). The role of temperature as a limiting factor is confirmed by Campanulaceae which receive fewer pollinator visits as the altitude increases (Blionis and Vokou 2001). In addition, insect pollinators tend to favor peak or early flowerings, while pre-dispersal seed predators tend to favor off-peak or later flowerings (Elzinga et al. 2007). An interesting example of the mutualistic specialization of weed-insect pollinators is Silene noctiflora L. (Caryophyllaceae) with nocturnal moths (Lepidoptera). This gynomonoecious plant has hermaphroditic, pistillate flowers that only open during the night and are pollinated exclusively by nocturnal moths (Davis and Delph 2005). Similarly, Silene alba (Miller) Krause opens its flowers at the end of the day, thereby allowing pollination both by diurnal (e.g., Apidae, Vespidae, Diptera, Syrphidae, and Bombyliidae) and nocturnal visitors (e.g., Noctuidae and Sphingidae) (Young 2002). This “mixed” system is also characteristic of several weeds belonging to Caryophyllaceae (e.g., genera Agrostemma, Saponaria, Dianthus, and Vaccaria) (Jürgens 2006).
Insect visitor-plant specializations do depend not only on flower traits and flowering phenology (Andersson 2008) but also on nectar composition, in terms of sugars and amino acids, viscosity, and the nectar secretion rate (Corbet 2003). It has been hypothesized that some specialist nectarivores can assimilate sucrose, whereas opportunistic nectar feeders digest only simple hexoses (Dupont et al. 2004). Sugar concentration is a key factor in nectar selection by nectar feeders. Indeed, insect pollinators using viscous dipping, such as solitary and social bees, obtain nectar containing higher sugar concentrations (52 %) than those using a suction method (33 %), like butterflies or hummingbirds (Kim et al. 2011). Moreover, honey bees show strong preferences for warmer and less viscous nectar due to faster ingestion and reduced thermoregulation costs, independently of changes in sugar concentration (Nicolson et al. 2013). Amino acids played a key role in attractiveness to insect pollinators. Different amino acids elicit different responses in insect gustative receptors (Gardener and Gillman 2002). For instance, the adult Lepidoptera’s diet is based exclusively on nectar. Thus, they are attracted to flowers rich with amino acids, especially female butterflies (Alm et al. 1990; Rusterholz and Erhardt 2000; Gardener and Gillman 2002). Honey bees can also alter their feeding selection in response to amino acids present in nectar. They prefer nectars enriched with some amino acids such as proline or glycine than other enriched with alanine and serine (Alm et al. 1990; Bertazzini et al. 2010). The predominance of phenylalanine andor gamma-aminobutyric acid attracts long-tongued bees and hoverflies, whereas asparagine and tryptophan seem repellent to these insects (Petanidou et al. 2006). The amino acid concentration in nectar is not exclusively a function of the weed’s genotype. It can also be affected by agronomic techniques. For instance, nitrogen fertilization increases nectar amino acid concentration in A. githago L. (Caryophyllaceae) (Gardener and Gillman 2001). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can likewise increase the number of flower visitors (mainly Diptera and Hymenoptera) in C. cyanus L. (Asteraceae) (Gange and Smith 2005). Lastly, the ecological significance of the toxic nectar secreted for example by some weeds (e.g., Cuscuta spp. (Convolvulaceae), Euphorbia spp. (Euphorbiaceae), and Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae)) is poorly understood. Nectar alkaloids may be protective agents against generalized flower visitors like Lepidoptera, while favoring bees, which are both more oligotrophic and less susceptible to alkaloids than Lepidoptera (Rhoades and Bergdahl 1981; Baker and Baker 1983; Adler 2000). However, other hypotheses on the ecological context of toxic nectar have been discussed, which has been linked to the costs of plant defence in terms of pollination services (Gegear et al. 2007). Although the alkaloids in the floral nectar tend to reduce visitation by bumblebees, the magnitude of the effect is likely to depend on the availability and nectar properties of alternative flowers.
The attraction of visiting insects is also linked to the mechanisms involved in flower recognition. The recognition of appropriate flowers is crucial to prevent wasting energy (Fenster et al. 2004). Thus, flower shape and color play a key role in routing insect foraging flights (Menzel and Shmida 1993). Many Brassicaceae species reflect ultraviolet radiation to attract insect pollinators (Yoshioka et al. 2005). Some flower colors are correlated with particular pollinator species, although this cannot be generalized since data from different environments do not necessarily lead to the same conclusion (Petanidou and Lamborn 2005). Specialist bumblebees prefer purple flowers, which seems to confirm the “pollination syndrome” theory (Nakano and Washitani 2003). The “pollination syndrome” is the hypothetical correlative relationship between floral characters (e.g., shapes, structures, colors) and the forager traits of the animal groups serving as flower pollinators. Flower recognition by insects can be facilitated by color patterns. The “search images” system possessed by insects (Goulson 2000) can be aided by characteristic black spots at the base of the petal, functioning as a “nectar guide” (Johnson and Dafni 1998), as observed in P. rhoeas (Papaveraceae). Bright and gaudy colors are not always required to oligotrophic and less susceptible flower visitors. Some Euphorbiaceae have pale green flowers. However, they are frequently visited by insects (e.g., Euphorbia esula L. and Euphorbia helioscopia L. (Euphorbiaceae)) (Larson et al. 2006; Benvenuti S., pers. observ.). Recently, it has been noted that the pale color of flowers, often defined as a feature to attract pollinators, is not maintained by pollen-mediated selection but by another mechanisms. The value of combining experimental pollen supplementation and reductions can be correlated with variation of floral traits, especially in species where compatible pollen receipt is difficult to measure (Campbell and Bischoff 2013). With regard to olfactory and tactile cues, a mechanism for identification and recognition of flowers also consists in the production and emission of volatile compounds, mainly terpenoids and benzenoids (van Schie et al. 2006). The two dominant components of the fragrance of Cirsium species (Asteraceae), benzaldehyde and phenylacetaldehyde, attract several orders of generalist insect pollinators (Theis 2006). Fragrance of their flowers is emitted in dynamic patterns that maximize pollinator attraction (Theis et al. 2007). For instance, generalist pollinators, such as oligolectic bees, often show innate sensory preferences for particular floral scent compounds of their host plant (Wright and Schiestl 2009; Dötterl et al. 2011; Burger et al. 2011). In addition an insect’s preferences for particular flower cues mean that it can actively identify new flower-borne physical and olfactory stimuli (Arak and Enquist 1993; Naug and Arathi 2007). Insects also have learning abilities to associate chemical signals to their food sources (Dukas 2008). Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera are the best examples of olfactory learning in insects (Wright and Schiestl 2009). Finally, using of olfactory signals provides more fitness advantages to both plant and pollinator than using of visual signals alone (Wright and Schiestl 2009).
Article by ArticleForge
Black Friday is crawling closer, and Dell’s selection of deals are already making the rounds. One of the exclusive deals offers a 500GB Xbox One, a physical copy of Fallout 4, an extra controller, a Gears of War: Ultimate Edition download, and a 3.5mm headset, all for $299.99.
The set boasts a market value of $469.99, considering the Gears of War: Ultimate Edition Xbox One bundle retails for $350, and Fallout 4 releases this November for $60.
So far, Dell is the only known outlet offering the discount, with only “limited quantities” available. So when the sale opens up November 26 at 6PM EST, expect bundles to start evaporating into thin air.
Fallout 4 is one of the most anticipated releases of this Fall, boasting hundreds of gameplay hours, new and improved combat, and more dialogue lines than Skyrim and Fallout 3 combined.
Check out the rest of Dell’s Black Friday deals, and let us know if you’ll be spending Thanksgiving night vying for this insane bundle.