|Exam Name||:||Windows Small Business Server 2011 (R) Configuring.|
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|Updated On||:||March 16, 2018|
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Following on from the closing put up which was an introduction to the windows Analytics improve Analytics answer in Operations management Suite, modern day post is on amassing statistics from your home windows 7 seasoned and home windows 8.x professional devices. For this publish I can be the usage of the Pilot version of the upgrade Readiness Deployment Script to bring together information from a couple of PCs as opposed to the use of an automatic deployment option.
before jumping in to the guidelines, it be value discussing how many PCs be sure to agree with gathering information from. The premier reply is "all of them", but the realities of the situation is that you simply may now not be in a position to entry all of the contraptions in a well timed manner, which capability beginning small after which scaling up as other gadgets become attainable. if you're coping with a huge range of PCs and put in application, then you definitely are going to need a larger pattern size. if you're working in an ambiance with restricted hardware and utility variation, you might be in a position to get away with concentrated on a smaller neighborhood of contraptions and extrapolate from there. The initial client facts upload is simply around 2MB in measurement, which means that it is going to most effective be round 600MB for the 300 users maximum that Microsoft 365 company supports.
Now that we now have covered the basics of targeting, head to https://medical doctors.Microsoft.com/en-us/home windows/deployment/upgrade/upgrade-readiness-deployment-script to down load the script and reserve it locally.
After downloading the improve Readiness Deployment Script to one of the most PCs, extract its contents.
The RunConfig.bat file in the Pilot folder is what we should edit.
the first aspect we deserve to do is add our CommercialIDValue.. the place will we get this?
Heading returned to the first publish within the sequence we seize the CommercialIDValue (which I have hidden on this screenshot).
next up is permitting IE records collection if required, which is a two half technique, first off you need to allow statistics collection, and then opt for the collection stage. shop the file and return to explorer.
choose Run as Administrator for RunConfig.bat. settle for the UAC promptto permit the script to run.
this could take a minute or so, let it run except comprehensive.
once finished, head to the UADiagnostics folder and examine that the script ran effectively. observe this technique on different machines you need to evaluate, and after a while be sure you see them seem within the OMS Workspace.
I had to click on the Generate file button, which advises that the computer systems should still be visible in the workspace within 48-seventy two hours, which makes this a very good place to end this post.
today’s publish was written by way of Ron Markezich, company vice president for Microsoft.
to claim that KeyBank is becoming is an underestimation. The financial institution just announced that it ranks ninth in the U.S. in line with the Small business Administration. This represents a 43 % jump in dollar volume from 2016 tiers, more than doubling its mortgage dedication considering 2015.
KeyBank bills for this success by means of focusing on serving small groups that help to build affluent communities throughout the country. This monetary capabilities enterprise is additionally banking on the Microsoft Cloud platform to give employees with the incredibly at ease, contemporary workplace they need to deliver the responsive service that shoppers expect in nowadays’s digital enterprise atmosphere.
right here’s how Keith Silvestri, chief expertise officer of KeyBank, describes his company’s decision to work with Microsoft:
“At KeyBank, meeting our consumers’ enterprise wants is our primary focal point. Key grows via constructing enduring relationships via customer-focused options and brilliant service. to meet those needs and to make sure our competitive part, we have begun our journey to both deepest and public cloud platforms for choose applications. Having met our strict compliance, protection, and possibility requirements, Microsoft became our choice as a strategic accomplice during this experience. With its alignment to our digital-first strategy, adopting Microsoft 365, which contains office 365, home windows 10, and the commercial enterprise Mobility + security Suite, and relocating to the Azure cloud platform, will position us to obtain our technology goals faster. We seem to be forward to providing our customers new chances and more desirable capabilities via our partnership with Microsoft.”
It’s splendid to know that KeyBank trusts Microsoft Cloud capabilities to empower personnel, meet its regulatory tasks, and guard its customers’ monetary facts with finished, clever cloud protection features.
This documentation is archived and is not being maintained.Technical Case study
because the "First and top-rated" consumer of Microsoft commercial enterprise products, Microsoft IT partnered with the windows building group to transform core line of business purposes into home windows 10 widespread hosted web functions. They used the popular home windows Platform, which frees developers from platform-selected work, to rearchitect MSApprovals, a important line of company application chargeable for approving one hundred,000 Microsoft inside transactions monthly. Three codebases are actually a single codebase, and protection has been decreased by means of 40 p.c.
The result is the home windows 10 well-known App, MSApprovals, which runs on any machine and offers users a seamless experience on their laptop, tablet, or phone.
products & applied sciences
Microsoft IT used the commonplace windows Platform to advance a windows 10 everyday hosted web application that offers a consistent event on any machine operating home windows 10, including, PCs, drugs, telephones, or through a browser.
Microsoft IT developed the contemporary Day One application to radically change five Microsoft line of company (LOB) functions into pilot windows 10 functions using the normal home windows Platform (UWP). The UWP is an evolution of the windows Runtime model that changed into delivered in home windows 8, and brings that model into the windows 10 unified core. As part of the core, the UWP provides a common app platform for every machine that runs home windows 10.
Out of the handful of functions chosen to upgrade to the windows 10 widely wide-spread application platform, MSApprovals was the primary utility to make use of the hosted-internet software capabilities of the conventional platform. Hosted-net apps are a UWP situation that permits developers to make use of the vigor of existing web workflows and continual deployment to submit a responsive web app.
MSApprovals is the core monetary approval software it truly is used to approve Microsoft inner transactions, assisting about eight,000 exciting users, and processing 100,000 approval moves per month. MSApprovals advanced the business’s method to monetary approval processing from a set of impartial, LOB-specific experiences right into a single, consistent system for processing all approval-like tasks.
In home windows 8, the MSApprovals app offered a single, intuitive user journey that spanned three machine systems: a domain operating on a web browser, a windows eight store app, and a windows cellphone eight utility—all with their own codebases.
The problem with having three types of the utility was that Microsoft IT needed to manage three codebases, one for each and every edition of the app. Even essentially the most minor change for one version of the utility supposed that Microsoft IT had to make that change in the other codebases to retain a consistent consumer experience throughout all devices. It changed into elaborate for MSApprovals, as a small team, to manage the numerous codebases.answer
Microsoft IT participated in an initiative to transition a few LOB purposes into home windows 10 popular Apps by the launch of windows 10. Microsoft IT begun conceptualizing MSApprovals as a popular hosted net app after listening to concerning the capabilities of the common hosted net app platform in windows 10, including the capacity to port a website over right into a home windows 10 app and use the UWP to run that app on dissimilar machine form components.
relocating MSApprovals to a windows 10 standard hosted net software gave Microsoft IT the probability to give an excellent user event for browser, computer, and mobile clients whereas decreasing the renovation effort to control apps for all three kind components. Consolidation right into a single codebase equals less code management.
figure 1. assessment of the MSApprovals app for home windows 8 and the MSApprovals windows 10 customary hosted internet app.Optimizing the web page for transformation right into a common software
to be able to prepare the MSApprovals web page to run on the single codebase in both the browser and as a home windows 10 prevalent app, Microsoft IT more suitable the latest MSApprovals web site. those improvements blanketed:
UX design enhancements so that the site adopted the home windows 10 design language.
Responsive design enhancements to further increase the experience of the web site on cell contraptions.
efficiency enhancements to make certain the web page ran quicker and greater smoothly.
Migration to Azure lively directory to allow future capabilities like single sign-on and to align with windows 10.
Having an adaptive consumer interface became very vital to Microsoft IT. If the MSApprovals website couldn’t adapt to distinctive monitor sizes, it could be complicated for them to guide browser viewing on diverse gadgets. for example, if the MSApprovals web page is optimized for just computing device displays, it is going to now not provide a good person experience for home windows cell clients.
Microsoft IT took capabilities of the probability and the substances attainable to them right through the transition to windows 10 to refresh the seem to be and think of the software. They also accelerated the responsive design of the software.
determine 2. MSApprovals home web page—computer/tablet view
determine three. MSApprovals home web page—mobile view
where there had been subtle differences in the design and navigation of the windows eight, home windows cellphone eight, and the browser-primarily based version, Microsoft IT became capable of provide a constant consumer journey throughout all gadgets the usage of home windows 10.Validating navigation patterns
When Microsoft IT constructed committed apps for every of the windows 8 app platforms (mobilephone and keep app), separate united states of americahad to be maintained for each and every to accommodate the respective UI navigation patterns on phone vs. save apps. as an instance, the windows eight save app scrolls horizontally, whereas the home windows cell eight app scrolls vertically. there were variations between hub and pivot navigation patterns as smartly. With windows 10, Microsoft IT standardized the navigation pattern for MSApprovals throughout the website and apps, giving clients a constant event on all structures.constructing MSApprovals right into a typical software
once the site work become complete, Microsoft IT used the home windows 10 application construction kit (SDK) with its normal assignment templates for visual Studio 2015 to build MSApprovals as a windows 10 accepted hosted net app. The work protected:
Enabling the responsive web site to run as a windows 10 app.
Integrating home windows 10 API calls into the web site code (AngularJS) to permit app users to get extra immersive home windows 10 features like toast or tile notifications.
testing to make sure the windows 10 apps rendered the web page accurately and that points work as expected when users run the conventional app.
The MSApprovals web page code can name on platform capabilities like toast notifications and superior are living Tiles. here's viable even if the code interacting with the windows 10 API is executing in the context of the web page (front-conclusion) code but is running in the community on the user’s device. The capability to name on windows 10 APIs gave Microsoft IT a method to convey the same functionalities offered through the windows 8 and windows eight telephone apps despite moving to a web app mannequin.greater efficiency the use of Azure
Many clients select native purposes to web purposes, because records calls in native functions are often faster than expecting web pages to load. This became a problem Microsoft IT wanted to tackle. holding a performance degree that matched the consumer event of a native software turned into an important factor of growing MSApprovals as a home windows 10 hosted web software. Microsoft IT turned into able to take full knowledge of the use of a PaaS (Platform as a provider) software, developed on Microsoft Azure, to provide a efficiency answer.
as a result of MSApprovals is now an Azure web site, it uses the cloud for scale and availability. Microsoft IT geo-deployed the MSApprovals app into diverse Azure databases worldwide to in the reduction of any connection latency, and used caching to raise efficiency as smartly.Consolidating the application security model the use of Azure lively directory
The MSApprovals prevalent internet hosted app relies on Azure energetic directory for authentication. moving to a normal app allowed Microsoft IT to consolidate their security models and use the equal centralized service and application security model for authentication on every device. apart from cutting back complexity and saving time and effort, moving to Azure active directory spread out the chance of extra integration with different capabilities—together with single sign-on—sooner or later.trying out
The MSApprovals hosted web app is a medium complexity web site, which contains a few regular pages and as a minimum eight to ten selected pages that vital particular person UI testing. probably the most essential criteria for Microsoft IT turned into that the application be responsive throughout all home windows contraptions.
Microsoft IT used standard checking out tools like Microsoft aspect for simulating home windows 10 app utilization, without needing to use particular emulators. Emulators had been required for testing the home windows eight mobilephone App as it turned into a native app and, hence, required a separate checking out effort, together with the web site. despite the fact, with the consolidated codebase and the use of a responsive website, many of the device testing turned into mixed with site trying out and best the ultimate circular of testing used specific equipment like emulators. This simplified testing and eliminated the need for emulators, and has provided cost discount rates unlock over free up.software publishing and certification
After reworking the MSApprovals app into a widely wide-spread net hosted application, Microsoft IT went during the publishing and certification system to make the app obtainable for download from the enterprise Portal, part of Microsoft Intune.
moving forward, Microsoft IT gained’t have to post or certify a brand new software replace every time they make an update or trade to the software’s features. The familiar net host application incorporates the net software and the software “container.” Code changes to the utility container may be published to the enterprise Portal and are pushed out to users as updates. however any changes or updates to the web application can be found for clients the subsequent time they open up the software on their phone, computing device, or during the browser.optimal Practices
Microsoft IT learned from each the success and the challenges they confronted whereas transforming the MSApprovals app right into a commonplace net hosted application. right here are just a few of the most excellent practices they found.
Having adaptive controls for responsive web page rendering is tremendously advised when developing a standard internet app. The transformation of MSApprovals changed into accomplished quickly and easily as a result of Microsoft IT had invested in a really responsive web page that worked in cell and non-cell browsers.
relocating to a ordinary web hosted application is a fine time to invest in the single codebase to make any planned application or performance improvements.
consider having assistance safety assessment the website software each before and after transformation to a customary net hosted app.
windows 10 SDK, with its average venture templates for visual Studio 2015, makes normal hosted net applications less difficult to control and easier to deploy. cut back complexity by way of minimizing customizations to the typical templates.
Microsoft IT has realized a few merits from reworking MSApprovals right into a regular hosted web app.reduced fees
relocating to a single, centralized codebase reduced upkeep by about 40 %. trying out in a single effort for one codebase, in preference to three, has reduced trying out efforts as much as 50 p.c.
remodeling the MSApprovals application right into a UWP internet hosted application with a single, unified codebase reduced fees and lowered the possibility for defects inside the code. by using relocating to the general software platform, Microsoft IT did not deserve to build expertise for establishing an app that runs on each and every platform.
Time to construction became decreased. With a single codebase and the ability to make web server-side code adjustments, clients see alterations and new functionality as soon as they go live. Microsoft IT has realized time mark downs to certify and post updates or alterations to the software’s facets.
The usual web hosted app mannequin allowed Microsoft IT to consolidate the software security fashions. The web site turned into migrated to Azure active listing, which provides centralized safety across all gadgets, reducing complexity and saving time and energy.
Consolidation has help streamline security reports. Having a hosted net application has resulted in sooner security reviews as a result of there is only one set of code.
MSApprovals, as a regularly occurring hosted net application that runs on an Azure infrastructure, is scalable and provides a top quality experience for its 8,000+ clients. MSApprovals makes it possible for productivity, providing a constant user event across instruments for a business-crucial system used via an increasingly cellular personnel.
Having MSApprovals as a customary hosted internet app makes it possible for clients to be greater productive. The MSApprovals app presents clients with a latest event that now not only simplifies how pertinent approval tips is displayed, however that also helps “deliver your personal device” (BYOD) by means of enabling tasks to be completed any place on any device at any time.
clients don't need to set up updates or have software updates pushed out to them to look every exchange or adventure new performance.
e-book to popular home windows Platform (UWP) apps
Downloads and tools for windows 10
the use of modern Apps to Streamline and Standardize business strategies
https://www.Microsoft.com/itshowcase/Article/content/391For greater information
For more information about Microsoft products or functions within the u.s., call the Microsoft revenue assistance core at (800) 426-9400. In Canada, call the Microsoft Canada Order Centre at (800) 933-4750. outdoor the 50 united states and Canada, please contact your native Microsoft subsidiary. To entry information via the internet, go to:
© 2016 Microsoft employer. All rights reserved. Microsoft and home windows are both registered trademarks or logos of Microsoft service provider in the u.s. and/or different nations. The names of specific agencies and products mentioned herein could be the trademarks of their respective owners. This doc is for informational purposes handiest. Microsoft MAKES NO WARRANTIES, express OR IMPLIED, in this abstract.
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71-169 Certification Brain Dumps Source : Windows Small Business Server 2011 (R) Configuring.
Test Code : 71-169
Test Name : Windows Small Business Server 2011 (R) Configuring.
Vendor Name : Microsoft
Q&A : 55 Real Test Questions/Answers
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The NHL hall of reputation recently launched the checklist of gamers eligible for hall of fame induction for 2008. It can be discovered at
From this listing, I think that I should condense it to an inventory of seven players who I feel need to be within the corridor of fame probably the most out of the men on this long record.
there are many avid gamers that deserve to be in the corridor of fame, yet many will need to wait, as improved avid gamers are perpetually retiring, and the corridor needs space for them.
The stats are formatted as such: goals-Assists-points
Glenn Anderson: 498-601-1099
Anderson changed into part of the Edmonton dynasty of the 80s and won six Stanley Cups over his profession. You do not win that many simply by being on the correct crew at the appropriate time. This man become wonderful and deserves a HoF ring.
Phil Housley: 338-894-1232
Housley changed into the optimum scoring American for a long time, unless Joe Mullen and Mike Modano came along. unfortunately, he under no circumstances gained a Stanley Cup, yet he's respectable ample to be a candidate for the corridor this 12 months.
Doug Gilmour: 450-964-1414
Gilmour became one of the most underrated gamers in NHL heritage. He received a Stanley Cup and a Canada Cup early on in his career. This guy is for true.
Boris Mikhailov (stats are for Senior World Championship play): 98-seventy one-169
Mikhailov gained eight World Championships in Russia and two Olympic Gold medals. He turned into also the captain of the noted 1980 team that misplaced to the americans and gained a Silver in Lake Placid. Mikhailov changed into probably the premier player ever no longer to play in the NHL. He would have been the contemporary day equal of Alex Ovechkin had he moved to america to play. He deserves a nod for the hall of repute.
Goalie stats are structured as adopted: Wins-Shutouts
Tom Barrasso: 369-38
He gained two Stanley Cups with the Pittsburgh Penguins in 1991 and 1992. He changed into readily the top-quality goaltender of his time, and for that cause in itself, he should have his graphic during this noted Toronto constructing.
Andy Moog: 372-28
Moog gained three Stanley Cups over his profession, and became also probably the most underrated goalies ever. He may also not deserve a spot in the hall of reputation, however he sure deserves a glance.
Mike Vernon: 385-27
Vernon gained two Stanley Cups with the red Wings. He become an astonishing goalie, specially in the clutch when his group mandatory him essentially the most. He should still as a minimum get a glance from the voting committee this 12 months.
So there you've got it. These are my seven players who I consider should get checked out. I do not necessarily consider that each one seven should still be inducted. possibly two or three of them.
Who will my picks be? neatly, in an effort to come later, once the inductees are announced by the league. but no count who's picked, they certain might not beat ultimate 12 months's inductees for the corridor of repute.
“break heart Syndrome” occurs from ingesting too tons fats and salt all through the break, that could harm your coronary heart. participants will learn extra at “steer clear of break coronary heart Syndrome,” presented by the girls conscious committee of the HALO venture, an outreach software of Presence United Samaritans clinical middle’s foundation.The free experience will start at 2 p.m. Wednesday at the Village Mall County Market. County Market and HALO project are partners in the speedy & effortless in shape food Kiosk, located at the entrance of the Village Mall County Market.
speakers will focus on stroke indicators, the results of salt on the heart, and there should be a cooking demonstration and offer tips on recipe amendment to prepare suit break food, speedy and simple.
This adventure is free and open to the general public; registration is not integral. There may be meals tasting, handouts, and a drawing for a $25 County Market grocery card. individuals should still meet within the County Market Café near the front of the shop. Seating is limited.
The American coronary heart affiliation’s coronary heart fit Cookbook might be available for a $5 donation.
For greater assistance contact Kathy Richard, director, HALO undertaking, at 442-6587 or discuss with www.presencehealth.org/halo.
Ajit Agarkar and Sanjay Bangar dissect the important thing fight between Virat Kohli and Imran Tahir ahead of Royal Challengers Bangalore's come across in opposition t Rising Pune Supergiant (3:32)fit data
Rising Pune Supergiant v Royal Challengers BangalorePune, April 29, 2017Start time 1600 local (1030 GMT)face to face
This season: An inexperienced opening bowling pair of Jaydev Unadkat and Shardul Thakur strangled a batting-heavy Royal Challengers Bangalore line-up to look after 161 on the Chinnaswamy Stadium. The duo ended with mixed figures of 8-0-60-5.
average: in their three meetings so far, Royal Challengers dangle a 2-1 side, having won each their matches in opposition t Rising Pune last year.in the information
Ben Stokes, who injured his shoulder within the game against Mumbai Indians on Monday, is likely to miss subsequent couple of fits.
In Rising Pune's remaining fit, Steven Smith had spoke of they wanted to make the MCA Stadium a fortress with returned-to-again suits arising. When Stokes couldn't play because he was "sore", bringing in Faf du Plessis in its place of beefing up their inexperienced bowling attack didn't help.
Royal Challengers, who can technically still make the playoffs, can be satisfied to have Tymal Mills fit once more and assist them bag wickets even as the batsmen fight to ranking over a hundred and fifty.The possible XIs
Rising Pune Supergiant: 1 Ajinkya Rahane, 2 Rahul Tripathi, 3 Steven Smith (capt), 4 Faf du Plessis, 5 MS Dhoni (wk), 6 Manoj Tiwary, 7 Dan Christian, 8 Washington Sundar, 9 Shardul Thakur, 10 Imran Tahir, 11 Jaydev Unadkat
Royal Challengers Bangalore: 1 Chris Gayle/Travis Head, 2 Virat Kohli (capt), 3 AB de Villiers, 4 Kedar Jadhav (wk), 5 Mandeep Singh, 6 Pawan Negi, 7 Samuel Badree, 8 Tymal Mills/Adam Milne, 9 S Aravind, 10 Aniket Choudhary, 11 Yuzvendra Chahalstrategy punt
Rahul Tripathi, Rising Pune's big in the Powerplays up to now, has a rapid strike-rate of 170.71 (169 runs off 99 balls) in the first six overs this season. against left-arm bowlers in the same duration, despite the fact, his strike-cost drops to 114.eight (31 runs off 27 balls). despite the fact that RCB frequently bowl Samuel Badree or Yuzvendra Chahal in the Powerplay, they could decide upon S Aravind or Pawan Negi this time to retain Tripathi in determine.Stats that count
Going via the win-loss ratio, RCB are having their worst season in the closing 10 years. With two wins and 6 losses, the ratio stands at 0.33. Their 2nd-worst season became the inaugural version in 2008 once they won only four of the 14 matches.
Steven Smith, Rising Pune's highest scorer this season, has scored most effective 22 runs off 26 balls with a strike-expense of 84.61 in opposition t Yuzvendra Chahal, Royal Challengers' highest wicket-taker to date.
among bowlers who have bowled over 10 overs within the first 15 overs this IPL, Shane Watson's economic climate cost of 10.60 is the worst.
amongst batsmen who have performed at the least 10 IPL innings, AB de Villiers has the most efficient strike-cost in the last five overs of an innings. He has scored 905 runs off 393 balls with a magnificent strike-fee of 230.27.
Tripathi has been disregarded only twice in 99 balls in Powerplays this season.
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December 20, 20100Article by ArticleForge
Correspondence to: T. M. Cook
You can respond to this article at
The Fourth National Audit Project (NAP4) recommended airway training for trainee and trained anaesthetists. As the skills required for management of airway emergencies differ from routine skills and these events are rare, practical training is likely to require training workshops. In 2013, we surveyed all UK National Health Service hospitals to examine the current practices regarding airway training workshops. We received responses from 206 hospitals (62%) covering all regions. Regarding airway workshops, 16% provide none and 51% only for trainees. Of those providing workshops, more than half are run less than annually. Workshop content varies widely, with several Difficult Airway Society (DAS) guideline techniques not taught or only infrequently. Reported barriers to training include lack of time and departmental or individual interest. Workshop-based airway training is variable in provision, frequency and content, and is often not prioritised by departments or individual trainers. It could be useful if guidance on workshop organisation, frequency and content was considered nationally.
Competence in a range of airway management skills is important for all anaesthetists. Although airway emergencies are uncommon, the chance of subsequent death or permanent brain injury when they occur is significant . Concerns have been raised over the past 15 years regarding the quality and availability of airway training in the United Kingdom [2-5]. In the Fourth National Audit Project (NAP4) of the Royal College of Anesthetists (RCoA) and Difficult Airway Society (DAS) , the commonest contributory factors reported were judgement and trainingeducation. In NAP4, 84% of cases were judged to include poor or mixed (good and poor) quality care, and for cases leading to death or brain damage this increased to 93%. Airway deaths described in NAP4 and recently elsewhere illustrated technical failings as well as non-technical contributory factors [1, 6-8]. With the infrequency of major airway problems, and the necessity to train and maintain technical and non-technical skills, airway training workshops are widely used by the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (AAGBI), RCoA, DAS and many other organisations. It is impractical for these national organisations to train all anaesthetists, so the question arises as to whether all anaesthetists have access to similar workshop-based training locally.
NAP4 recommended that each UK anaesthetic department should have a nominated airway lead (AWL) , and this was endorsed by the RCoA and DAS . The main roles of the AWL include: overseeing local airway training for anaesthetists and assisting in airway training more widely; and ensuring local policies exist and are disseminated for predictable airway emergencies.
The recommendations of the NAP4 report specifically included: proficiency in simple emergency airway care; that all anaesthetists should learn ‘low skill rescue intubation’ through a supraglottic airway device (SAD), such as those including an Aintree Intubation Catheter; and manikin-based practice in the performance of cricothyroidotomy . The report emphasised training and rehearsal of airway management techniques (for anaesthetists and intensivists), specifically encouraged multidisciplinary training of both technical and non-technical skills and advised that techniques and guidelines should be taught and rehearsed using locally available airway equipment and algorithms. The report recommended that a record of staff training was maintained. It is difficult to conceive that these techniques and skills might be taught or learnt without practical instruction; i.e., workshop teaching.
The recently published 2015 DAS guidelines were heavily influenced by the findings of NAP4 and specifically advocate training in use of videolaryngoscopy, insertion of second generation SADs and performance of a ‘scalpel cricothyroidotomy’ front of neck airway . Regular training for all anaesthetists is emphasised to ensure retention of technical and psychomotor skills.
‘Technical training’ has a role in establishing psychomotor skills and knowledge of algorithms for trainees, updating those skills for more senior staff and training all staff in emerging or newly adopted techniques and algorithms. Retention of psychomotor skills has been shown to be better with frequent ‘hands on’ practical training and practical skill ‘decay’ is now well recognised .
We surveyed all UK anaesthetic departments to explore current practices and examine local provision of out-of-theatre airway training, content of airway workshops and barriers to their provision.
A survey was designed by the authors (TC and FK) and was discussed with our local Research and Development Department, who confirmed it did not meet current NHS definitions of research and that formal approval by the Regional Ethics Committee was not required.
The survey was part of a larger survey of practice and included 12 questions relating to airway training (Appendix 1), investigating whether the department had an AWL, whether out-of-theatre airway training was provided locally and, if so, its frequency, target audience, content and whether it was voluntary or mandatory. If no out-of-theatre training was provided, we explored the major barriers preventing it.
The survey was conducted in conjunction with the Health Service Research Centre (HSRC) of the National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia at the RCoA, whose own database of was used to identify all UK NHS anaesthetic departments and departmental AWLs. The survey was reviewed by the HSRC executive board before being distributed but was not formally piloted. The survey was sent to Departmental AWLs where these were known, and to anaesthetic departments where they were not, requesting completion of an on-line survey. Some AWLs had responsibility for more than hospital (e.g. a Trust or Board – the terms for a group of hospitals in EnglandWalesNorthern Ireland, and Scotland, respectively) and they were asked to indicate, in their response, whether they had responded on behalf of an individual department or several departments together. To improve response rates, if no response was received, an email was sent to the anaesthetic departmental Quality Audit and Research Coordinator (QuARC), and if still no response was received, an email was then sent to the Clinical Director. In this manner, serial attempts were made to elicit a response but only one response was received from each hospital or group of hospitals. The survey was conducted during 2013 and closed in January 2014. Responses were collected independently by the HSRC staff, manually checked to ensure that only one response per anaesthetic department was counted, and responses were then de-identified.
Data were entered into a Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft Cooperation, Redmond, WA, USA) spreadsheet.
Surveys were distributed to 335 hospitals. A total of 171 replies were received. These replies were from respondents representing 99 TrustsBoards and 72 individual hospitals, in total accounting for 206 hospitals (62% response rate).
Respondents were principally consultants (167171, 98%), the others being associate specialists (3171, 1.5%) and one senior specialist registrar (1171, 0.5%). Distribution of hospitals was as follows: teaching hospital 49171 (29%), district general hospital with teaching hospital affiliation 82171 (50%), district general hospital 28171 (16%), paediatric hospital 5171 (3%) and other specialist hospital 6171 (4%). Responses were received from hospitals in all training regions of the UK.
Ninety-one percent of responding departments (155171) had an AWL.
Eighty-four percent of respondents (142169) reported provision of workshop-type manikin-based airway training. In 86169 (51%) of anaesthetic departments, this training was provided for anaesthesia staff of all seniorities, and in 65169 (38%), training was only for trainees. Therefore, 27169 (16%) of departments provided no training of this type at all, and 83169 (49%) of responding departments provided no training for non-trainees (Table 1). Frequency of workshop-type airway training varied considerably (Table 1). At least twice-yearly training was provided in 71169 (42%) of respondents’ departments – 24% for trainees only and 18% all seniorities.
Table 1. Anaesthetic departmental provision of out-of-theatre airway training workshops. Respondents to this question = 169. Values are number (proportion) Any frequencies 86 (51%) 65 (38%) Once a year 56 (33%) 24 (14%) Twice a year 23 (13%) 26 (15%) Three times a year 3 (2%) 4 (2%) Four times a year 4 (2%) 11 (6%)
Table 2 shows the distribution of type of workshop training provided by departments. A little over half of respondents’ hospitals (92169, 54%) provided formal airway training workshops and in less than one third (54169, 32%) attendance was mandatory and registered. Provision of formal training, more than once a year, whether mandatory or voluntary, was reported in 52169 (31%) of departments.
Table 2. Type of workshops arranged and frequency. Respondents to this question = 169. Values are number (proportion) Formal mandatory workshop training as part of induction 14 7 3 24 (14%) Formal mandatory workshop with register of attendance 9 15 1 25 (15%) Formal mandatory workshop without register 3 2 0 5 (3%) Formal workshop with voluntary attendance 14 11 13 38 (22%) Informal workshopmanikin training 18 15 17 50 (29%) No formal arrangement 17 2 0 19 (11%) No such training 8 0 0 8 (4%)
The content of practical airway training varied considerably (Fig. 1).
Components of airway training and frequency of inclusion in all workshopstraining. The skills are ranked by the frequency with which they are included. DAS, difficult airway society, SAD, supraglottic airway devices, RSI, rapid sequence induction. Blue, always included; red, sometimes included; green, never included. Values on the y-axis are number of respondents and the x-axis presents percentage of respondents for each question.
Seventy-eight respondents reported 114 reasons why they did not provide practical airway training (Fig. 2). Lack of availability of trainers was the commonest cause (39% of responses), followed by lack of equipment (26%) and lack of interestprioritisation by trainers (24%). Lack of interest by trainees was reported by one respondent (0.9% of responses).
Reasons why airway training is not provided. Seventy-eight respondents reported 114 reasons. Results presented as proportion of responses.
Anaesthetists require airway skills – both basic and advanced – for routine airway management and to enable safe management of airway difficulties and crises. These skills and techniques need to be learnt and updated by both trainees and trained anaesthetists. There is at present no agreed source to define what those skills and techniques might be or how training should be undertaken. The RCoA curriculum for training [14-16], the recommendations arising from NAP4 [1, 11] and skills required to achieve the procedures included in the DAS guidelines  are all potentially relevant. Although airway workshops appear to be widely used at a national, regional and local level, we are not aware of any specific guidance on the nature, frequency or content of this type of training or whether it should be mandatory or voluntary. Without a national policy on this, current practices will remain ad hoc and in some settings, training will be absent or inadequate. This survey has demonstrated exactly this.
While neither NAP4 nor the 2015 DAS guidelines specifically recommend local workshop-style training, this has emerged as one method to deliver training and is used by several national organisations. These national organisations cannot train all anaesthetists, even intermittently, and if out-of-theatre airway workshops have value, it is logical that they should be provided at a local level. Training anaesthetists at locally provided airway workshops enables training with anaesthetic colleagues from their own department, with locally available anaesthetic equipment and with their own anaesthetic nurses and operating department practitioners (ODPs). The DAS 2015 guidelines emphasise the importance of training with locally available equipment, and state that ‘local training will be necessary’ . Marshall and Pandit, commenting on the DAS 2015 guidelines recently, wrote that “it would seem important that a specific ongoing competency requirement for all anaesthetists should be ‘airway management’, to include all aspects of these new guidelines” . The Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) already mandate training in emergency airway management for both trainees and trained anaesthetists .
Airway workshops enable training of new skills on manikins, familiarisation with new equipment and techniques and learning the use of emergency algorithms. Many of these techniques are impractical to teach or learn or practice in patients, yet are part of national and international guidelines and expected emergency airway management . For junior anaesthetists, airway workshops allow acquisition of skills and knowledge; for senior anaesthetists, they enable refreshing and updating of skills and knowledge previously learnt, and acquisition of newly developed or newly recommended skills. Regarding UK training: while many of the component techniques recommended by NAP4 and described in the DAS guidelines (2004  or 2015 ) are included in the training curriculum of the RCoA, it is notable that they are described in general terms and that specific techniques and the DAS guidelines themselves are not mentioned [13-15]. Therefore, completion of this specialist training may not equate with acquisition of the skills and knowledge recommended by NAP4 and included in the DAS guidelines.
Although this paper focuses on UK experience, there is evidence that similar training and practical knowledge gaps exist elsewhere [20-22].
Our survey, completed in 2014, shows that local out-of-theatre airway training in the UK remains highly variable in its provision, target audience, frequency, content and whether it is mandatory or voluntary. In half of UK hospitals, it is non-existent for senior staff and in 16% for all anaesthetists. In practice, airway workshops can be readily organised with minimal equipment, using departmental resources. Airway workshops can be used to teach both technical and non-technical skills and have a role in teaching team-working if expanded to incorporate multidisciplinary groups, as recommended in NAP4 .
The content of practical airway training also varied considerably. As might be expected, much of the content related to the DAS 2004 guidelines . The commonest components were ‘DAS airway guidelines’ (always included by 77% of respondents and alwayssometimes included by 97%) and ‘management of can't intubate can't ventilate (CICV)’ (74% always, 95% alwayssometimes). Several components of the DAS 2004 guidance, which are now more strongly emphasised in the 2015 guidance, were infrequently taught: these included surgical (scalpel) airway (always taught 36%, never taught 17%); fibreoptic-guided intubation via a SAD (always 37%, never 19%); and waking the patient during difficulty (always 42%, never 20%). Also, management of difficult intubation during rapid sequence induction was ‘always’ included in workshop training in fewer than half of departments. Conversely, several components not included in the DAS 2004 guidelines were frequently taught. These included videolaryngoscopy (alwayssometimes 92%) and intubation via a SAD with an Aintree Intubation Catheter (alwayssometimes 86%). For intubation via a SAD, the ‘fibreoptic and Aintree-guided’ technique was the commonest (always taught 46%), followed by ‘fibreoptic and tracheal tube’ (37%) and ‘blind intubation (28%). These are all consistent with changes in the DAS 2015 guidelines  and might suggest a degree of anticipatory preparedness for the updated guidelines, even before their publication. However, among the techniques for emergency front of neck airway, narrow-bore cricothyroidotomy was the most frequently taught (always 63%), followed by wide-bore cannula over needle (53%), wide-bore Seldinger (48%) and surgical airway (36%). As the last technique is the primary technique described in the DAS 2015 guidelines, it will need a re-alignment between what is recommended and what is taught. The low rate of teaching of surgical airways is also at odds with recommendations of NAP4 . With the variation in content seen in the workshops, it appears some currently being run are not fit for purpose. If a national policy was developed to guide such workshops and courses, it would probably improve not only the provision of courses but the consistency of content.
The major reason cited for not running airway training workshops was the lack of time or lack of interest or prioritisation from trainers – these combined to account for more than half the cited reasons. This raises concerns about priorities in some anaesthetic departments, and may hint that pressures to maintain ‘service’ are impacting on the ability and enthusiasm to train and maintain skills. Lack of facilities or equipment to perform airway workshops accounted for much of the remaining barriers to workshop provision. In contrast, ‘lack of interest’ by trainees was not prevalent.
In addition to variation in provision, frequency and content, we also identified variation in whether workshop training was mandatory or voluntary. Only one in six of those providing workshops provided mandated airway workshops at least annually for all department members. This lack of regular, mandated, structured training in the emergency airway skills that anaesthetists require contrasts markedly with other mandated training. Even excluding other forms of hospital mandatory training, a variety of advanced life support courses are now expected for both trainees and seniors. These generic courses do not include airway management training of a level appropriate to expert anaesthetists.
There are limitations to our study. The response rate, despite repeated efforts to improve this, was 62%. However, we received responses from all four countries in the UK, from all training regions and the distribution of the type of hospital that responded is broadly similar to the national distribution . It is possible that those departments with an airway lead and airway workshop training were more likely to respond, leading to responder bias. Also of note is that this survey involved self-reporting, with no external validation of findings. We were not able to explore whether the size of a hospital impacted on the provision of training as the survey did not identify hospital size or activity. We also did not capture whether regional-based training (likely only for trainees) acts as an effective alternative to local training. The survey focused on technical skills and it is acknowledged that non-technical skills and training also has great importance in maintaining overall ‘airway competence’.
In conclusion, this survey provides a snapshot of airway workshop provision in the UK. It shows a variation in the provision, target audience, content, frequency and mandatory nature of out-of-theatre airway training for anaesthetists. The majority of trained UK anaesthetists do not have access to local airway workshop training. The predominant barrier to airway training workshops was trainer time and enthusiasm. Fatalities relating to difficult airway management continue to occur in UK hospitals [24, 25] and the focus of coronial enquiry is now including the quality of training of junior and senior anaesthetists. The results of this survey provide an insight into the provision and lack of provision of regular airway training for UK anaesthetists. These data may be valuable for national bodies, who may wish to consider whether the current state is desirable or acceptable and whether national guidance on provision and content of locally delivered airway workshop training might be developed.
We thank Mrs Madeleine Bell and Mrs Mary Casserley at the RCoA for administering the survey and all respondents for their contributions. We thank Dr Jonathan Benn (Lecturer in Quality Improvement in Healthcare, Imperial College London) for advice on hospital types as described in the National Reporting and Learning System clusters.
TC is a member of the Executive Board of the Health Service Research Centre HSRC of the National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia. He is the Airway Advisor to the Royal College of Anaesthetists. This study was supported by the Health Service Research Centre of the National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia and by the Department of Anaesthesia, Royal United Hospital, Bath. No other funding or competing interests declared.
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2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland
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The OML-SprayDrift model (Operationelle Meteorologiske Luftkvalitetsmodeller, meaning Operational Meteorological Air Quality Model) is a combination of two Gaussian model principles. The Gaussian tilting plume method11,12) determines the amount of spray deposited inside the directly sprayed zone. The remainder spray is treated as area sources located in the track and is dispersed applying a traditionally reflected Gaussian plume and the deposition beyond the track is calculated by deposition velocity. The model calculates the water and possible pesticide evaporation from the droplets and the resulting change in diameter and vertical velocity as a function of travel distance. Deposition outside the track is converted to negative surface sources following the principle of surface depletion described by Horst.15) The negative surface sources ensure that the calculated vertical profiles of the horizontal drift at some distance from the edge of the field have a maximum above the ground, which also has been observed and modeled.9) The model operates on droplet classes in size intervals of 10 µm.
The dispersion model is based on the Danish Gaussian plume model OML, which calculates the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants from multiple point and area sources and has been validated against many different datasets including non-buoyant surface releases.16) The model is a regulatory model used by the Danish authorities, consultants, and industry. In OML, turbulence is described as continuous functions of micrometeorological parameters like friction velocity, heat flux from the surface, aerodynamic roughness, and the Monin–Obukhov length describing the atmospheric stability. The vertical and horizontal dispersion from a point source is described as a Gaussian (normal) distribution. For a point source placed at coordinates (0, 0, H) (m), the concentration c (g m−3) at the point (x, y, z) is calculated disregarding deposition as follows:
where Q is the emission rate (g sec−1), u is the wind speed (m sec−1), H is the height of the source (m), and σy and σz are the horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters (m), respectively. The reflection terms refer to the reflection from the ground surface of the plume and are active outside the track in the OML-SprayDrift model. In most cases, spray drift is a two-dimensional phenomenon, because the long spray track will smooth out the horizontal dispersion when estimating the average concentration. Therefore, the OML-SprayDrift model disregards the horizontal influence and is a 2D model.
1.2. Deposition inside the track
Inside the spray track, deposition is calculated using a Gaussian tilting plume or settling plume principle.11,12) The height of the droplet plume centerline, H, in the concentration equation is decreased due to the descending droplets. The principle is applied to a number of droplet size classes. In this study, the classes consist of 10 µm droplet diameter intervals and are in the calculations represented by the median diameter of the interval center. In this case, the theoretical dispersion is not affected by the presence of the ground surface, and the plume is allowed to disperse under the surface; i.e., the reflection term in the concentration equation is neglected. At a given distance, the total deposition is equal to the part of the plume that is located beneath the surface.
The average deposition inside a track is represented by the droplets released at the center of the boom. At the edge of the boom, the deposition for each droplet class is calculated with the tilting plume where the vertical position of the droplet is calculated by the droplet model described in Section 1.4, taking into account the droplet exit speed from the nozzle, the evaporation, and the change in droplet size and speed.
1.3. Deposition beyond the track
After droplet release, the speed of the smaller droplets reaches a terminal speed within a few tenths of a second, which is not affected by the nozzle exit speed, but for boom heights of 0.5 m, the larger droplets will deposit inside the track. The smaller droplets, which will mainly deposit outside the track, have a terminal speed that is comparable to or less than the typical speed of turbulence eddies, i.e., in order of the friction velocity, u*. This means that the rate of deposition due to turbulent transport will be comparable to the rate of deposition due to pure sedimentation.
The OML-SprayDrift takes this turbulent deposition into account using the surface depletion principle.15) Deposition at a given distance downwind from a source is handled as a negative source with the same strength as the deposition rate.
The deposition rate Dep is calculated based on the principle of deposition velocity vd. The deposition is proportional to the deposition velocity vd(z) and the concentration c(z):
where z is the reference height, which is set to 0.5 m in the spray-drift model. The deposition velocity is parameterized analogous to electrical resistances and the dry deposition velocity of particles or droplets14):
where vs is the settling velocity of the drop as a function of its diameter, ra (sec m−1) is the aerodynamic resistance, and rb is the laminar sublayer resistance close to the surface. The aerodynamic resistance in the mixing layer is defined as
where κ is the dimensionless von Karman’s constant, u* (msec) is the friction velocity, z0 (m) is the roughness length, and ψ is Businger’s corrections function for atmospheric stability.17)
For particles, the laminar sublayer resistance close to the surface is given as
where Sc is the dimensionless Schmidt number: νD, where D is the diffusivity, ν is the kinematic viscosity, and St is the dimensionless Stoke number: (u2*vs)(g ν), where g is gravity (m sec−2). The settling velocity of the droplets is incorporated in the Stoke number.
1.4. Evaporation and fall velocity of droplets
The dispersion and deposition model is coupled with a droplet model describing droplet evaporation and the resulting changes in size and velocity. The model takes into account the droplet ejection velocity as well as the relative humidity and ambient temperature. The model is based on a model for pure water and further developed to deal with the pesticide content of the droplet and its possible evaporation. The model assumes no interaction between droplets and that the droplets have no influence on the air. The model does not take formulations and adjuvants into consideration, although it is known that formulations and adjuvants can influence the droplet size distribution18–20) and thereby affect the drift potential. Although the results of Sanderson et al.21) were related to specific experimental and meteorological conditions, they concluded that drift is considerably lower using water-dispersible granules or liquid-flowable formulations of Propanil compared to emulsifiable concentrates. Chapple et al.22) tested different adjuvants and found that six out of seven adjuvants shifted the droplet spectra relative to water, either to smaller or larger diameters.
The model describes droplet behavior after ejection. A droplet is affected by gravity, the drag force of the air, and the evaporation of water and pesticide. Fall velocity and evaporation are described by solving mass, moment and energy equations for a single droplet. These equations are transformed to equations for diameter, fall velocity, and temperature, respectively. Together with the ambient temperature and relative humidity, these equations determine the exchange and thereby the changes in size, velocity, and temperature of the droplet. A detailed description of the droplet model is found in Supplemental Material.
Droplet fall velocity is an important parameter for the deposition rate to the ground surface and primarily depends on the diameter. Even though the droplet exit speed at the nozzle outlet is in the range of about 15–25 msec,23) the smallest droplet reaches a much lower terminal velocity within a few tenths of a second after exit. However, a continued change in diameter and velocity occurs due to evaporation. For the smallest droplets, the change can be fast, as shown in Fig. 1. For a given diameter, the relative humidity of the air is the most important parameter for the evaporation rate, as shown in the figure.
When the droplets contain a pesticide with a low vapor pressure, the evaporation and change in diameter of the droplets almost stop, and they reach a minimum diameter. This occurs when the relative water content equals the relative humidity of the air. If the pesticide also evaporates, the minimum diameter decreases accordingly.
1.5. Calibration and validation
The model was calibrated and validated against the field measurements described in the next section. The field data were divided into data from the years 2005 and 2010, where a standard flat-fan and an air-injection nozzle were used, respectively. Calibration was performed using the 2005 data and validation was done on the 2010 data. Many spray-drift models have been calibrated, e.g., using field canopy porosity and velocity scaling parameters,9) fitting horizontal and vertical eddy diffusivities Ky and Kz to the first trail in a series,12) or adding empirical corrections to the evaporation rate that changed the deposition downwind with a factor of 2.6) Teske et al.7) describe the great variance between different empirical parameterizations of the nozzle-induced airstream velocity due to the entrainment of air. In this study, the calibration also involves the effects of the nozzle-induced airstream.
Calibration was based on the deposition inside the spray track. The droplet model only handles single droplets and does not take into account the effect of the whole continuous spray cloud on the airstream close to the nozzle. A droplet transfers momentum to the surrounding air and is slowed down. The droplet reaches the terminal speed at a certain fall distance, but all the droplets in the spray cloud together create a downward airstream that increases the fall distance compared to the calculated fall distance for a single droplet. Therefore, an algorithm for the empirical additional fall distance is established based on the 2005 data. It is anticipated that a high wind speed destroys the induced airstream. The additional fall distance, Δz (m), is a function of the wind speed at boom height uB (m sec−1):
The algorithm is applied for uB below 4.4 m sec−1, and Δz is 0 m for larger uB, where uB is calculated from the meteorological observations taking into account the atmospheric stability using Businger’s corrections16) to the neutral logarithmic wind profile.
1.6. Model input and output
As input, the model needs meteorological information on wind direction, friction velocity (turbulence), Monin–Obukhov length (atmospheric stability), aerodynamic roughness, temperature, humidity, mixing height and boom height. The nozzle droplet spectra and ejection velocity are also needed together with pesticide tank concentration and application rate (L ha−1). Driving speed is assumed to be around 7 km hr−1.
The model calculates the ground-surface deposition and the vertical profile of the horizontal pesticide flux, in principle, at any distance downwind of any field size. Also, the droplet spectra can be calculated at any position.
Most spray models are developed using deposition measurements. This type of measurement can be difficult to perform properly in order to measure the far-field drift deposition of small droplets using smooth horizontal surfaces, such as alpha-cellulose sheets, on a rough field surface.8,11) To avoid this problem, this study measured the vertical profile of the horizontal drift. In the far field, the total amount of collected spray drift will be much larger than the horizontally deposited spray drift measured per unit area, which reduces uncertainty in measurements.
2.1. Field measurements
A series of spray experiments were carried out in order to determine pesticide droplet dispersion from spray tracks. These experiments were conducted so that horizontal flux at different heights and different distances from the spray boom was determined24,25) using sodium fluorescein as a tracer. The tracer is assumed not to evaporate and has a molar mass of 376.3 g mol−1, which is about the value of many pesticides.
Spraying was performed with a conventional tractor-mounted sprayer. Spray nozzles were either Hardi 4110-16 (flat fan; Hardi, Denmark) or TeeJet AI 110-04 (air induction; TeeJet, USA). The spray boom was 12 m wide with 24 nozzles, and boom height was adjusted to 50 cm above the vegetation. The tractor driving speed was about 7 km hr−1. The conditions for each spraying are presented in Table 1. Before calibration and validation, all measurements were normalized to the same application rate, i.e., 300 L ha−1 and 1.49 g L−1.
Table 1. Meteorological conditions and settings for the spray equipment during spray events Parameter, unit Trial April 05 May 05 June 05 Aug. 05 Sept. 05 June 10 June 10 Environmental conditions Wind speed, m sec−1 5.5–6.2 2.0–3.6 2.9–3.8 3.7–4.5 2.4–3.3 4.6–5.8 4.8–5.6 u*, m s−1 a) 0.51–0.61 0.19–0.28 0.39–0.45 0.34–0.53 0.29–0.58 0.45–0.62 0.51–0.61 L, mb) −57–−88 −5–−21 −58–−88 −21–−87 −24–−107 244 −116–−196 Heat flux, W m−2 206–255 51–130 74–120 93–205 91–164 44–112 85–144 Temperature, °C 10–11 11–12 17–18 17–18 22–24 12–15 15–16 RH, % 42–50 53–59 65–79 47–60 45–65 67–77 63–65 Spraying equipment settings Nozzle typec) FF FF FF FF FF AI AI Pressure, MPa 0.55 0.55 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 Flow rate, L min−1 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.6 1.6 VDMd), µm 198 198 213 213 213 439 439 Drop ejection speede), m sec−1 18.0 18.0 15.5 15.5 15.5 9.2 9.2 Tractor speed, km hr−1 7 7 7 7 7 6.4 6.4 Application rate, L ha−1 300 300 200 200 200 300 300 Tank concentration, g L−1 1.49 2.23 1.63 1.99 1.83 2.23 1.93
a) The parameter u* is the friction velocity, a measure of air turbulence. b) L (Monin–Obukhov number) is a parameter of atmospheric stability. c) FF=Hardi flat fan 4110-16 nozzles and AI=TeeJet Air Injection −110-04. d) Volume median diameter from measurement in laboratory. e) Value from centre of measured volumetric droplet velocity distribution from continuous scan in laboratory.
The experiments took place along a hawthorn hedgerow on seven occasions (April 2005, May 2005, June 2005, August 2005, September 2005, and twice in June 2010). The meteorological conditions for wind speed, wind direction, turbulence, temperature, and heat flux were measured with an ultrasonic anemometer at 4 m height on a mast in the center of the 200 m×200 m field, i.e., 100 m from the hedgerow. Relative humidity was also measured (Table 1). The calculated meteorological data during the individual trails are based on 10-min averages in correspondence with Bird et al.8)
Measurements were performed for five spray tracks parallel to the hedgerow with an increasing distance from the hedgerow (cf. Fig. 2). The hedgerow consisted almost entirely of hawthorn (Cartages laevigata (Poiret)) trees about 4–5 m high and 1–2 m wide, with a few gaps. Hawthorn is deciduous, and in Denmark leafing occurs in early May, flowering in MayJune. Measurements of the vertical wind profile at 4 positions (1.0, 2.0, 3.5, and 5.1 m above the ground) in the hedgerow were compared with the wind measurements about 100 m upstream at the open field. These measurements indicated that the total horizontal flux from ground to 5.1 m was reduced by about 10% (data not shown). This indicates a small vertical component in the mean flow and is consistent with a measured average vertical wind component at 5.1 m of 8–9% of the horizontal component. Compared to other uncertainties, this is only a minor violation of the implicit assumption of horizontal mean flow.
Spray drift was collected using commercial plastic hair curlers (M-cosmetics, Denmark) mounted on masts 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 m above the ground. The curlers were covered with 3-mm-long “hair,” 0.15 mm in diameter, and were assumed to collect droplets with a diameter down to 10 µm and an effective crosswind area of 2 cm×6 cm. These assumptions were associated with some uncertainty due to the complex structure of the curler.
The masts were placed at five different distances to a hedgerow almost perpendicular to the wind direction. The mast spacing was 12 m, corresponding to the width of the spray boom. At each distance, five masts were set up at 10 m intervals, and the first row was placed just in front of the hedgerow, resulting in a total of 25 masts. In each mast, two hair curlers were placed upright at each of the four four sampling heights, giving 10 curler measurements at each height at each distance that were averaged and used in the model calibration and validation. Before spraying the next track, a new row of masts mounted with curlers was erected. In order to reduce the large variability in the measurements, some extra trails were performed where the tractor drove back and forth 10 times in the third track 24 m away from the hedgerow, and measurements were only made in the hedgerow.
2.2. Droplet size distributions
Three different droplet size distributions were applied during the field experiments, i.e., the standard flat-fan Hardi 4110-16 at 0.30 and 0.55 MPa and the TeeJet air-induction nozzle 110-04 at 0.30 MPa. The nozzle droplet spectra were experimentally determined using the PD laser-based measurement setup and protocol.26,27) Cumulative droplet size distributions are shown in Fig. 3 together with the results of the flat-fan nozzle XR 110-02 at 0.30 MPa28) used for the sensitivity analysis in a later section.
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Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571 (DSM 5975, ), Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis 168 (ATCC 23857, ), Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 (DSM 2839, ) and Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (ATCC BAA477, ) were grown in 20 ml of Luria-Bertani broth (LB; Oxoid) at 25 °C overnight, with orbital shaking at 250 rpm. To prepare the inoculum suspension of each bacterial strain, 15 ml of the culture grown overnight were centrifuged at 5000 × g for 10 min at room temperature. The supernatant was discarded and the bacterial cells were washed three times by suspending in 20 ml of sterile isotonic solution (0.9 % NaCl) and centrifuging at 5000 × g for 10 min. The concentration of each bacterial suspension was assessed by measuring the optical density (OD) at 600 nm with a spectrophotometer (Ultrospec 3100, GE Healthcare Life Sciences) and adjusted to 5 × 108 cells ml−1.
Debaryomyces hansenii 767 , Pichia stipitis 6054 , Schizosaccharomyces pombe 972 h (DSM 70576, ), Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c (ATCC 204508, ) and T. atroviride SC1 (available in our strain collection and in the commercial product Vintec, Bi-, Londerzeel, Belgium) were grown on malt extract agar (MEA; Oxoid) at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger 513.88 , Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 4287 ( 123668, ) and Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin 54–1255 (DSM 1075, ), were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA; Oxoid) at 25 °C. To prepare the inoculum suspension of filamentous fungi and yeasts, conidia and cells were collected from 21-day-old cultures by washing each plate with 3 ml of sterile isotonic solution, using a glass rod under sterile conditions. The suspension of each strain was filtered with sterile cloth, and cells were washed three times by suspending in 6 ml of sterile isotonic solution and centrifuging at 5000 × g for 10 min. The concentration of each conidia and cell suspension was adjusted to 5 × 108 cells ml−1 by counting with a hemocytometer under a light microscope. For the inoculum suspension of A. mellea M6132 (kindly provided by Dr. Simone Prospero, Swiss Federal Research Institute, Birmensdorf), 1 g of mycelium was collected from 21-day-old culture grown on MEA at 25 °C and suspended in 4 ml of sterile isotonic solution. Sterile steel beads were added and the A. mellea mycelium was ground in a mixer-mill disruptor (MM 400, Retsch) at 25 Hz for 3 min. The ground mycelium was washed three times by suspending in 4 ml of sterile isotonic solution and centrifuging at 5000 × g for 10 min, and it was then suspended in 2 ml of sterile isotonic solution.
The viability of counted cells in each inoculum suspension was validated through a dilution plating method (Additional file 1). Basically, 0.1 ml of each inoculum suspension was subjected to 10-fold serial dilution, 0.2 ml of each dilution was plated in triplicate on plates containing the appropriate media for each strain, bacterial and fungal colony forming units (CFUs) were then assessed after incubation at 25 °C for 24 and 48 h respectively.