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000-003 - Fundamentals of Applying Tivoli Security and Compliance Management Solutions V2 - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : 000-003
Exam Name : Fundamentals of Applying Tivoli Security and Compliance Management Solutions V2
Questions and Answers : 110 Q & A
Updated On : October 13, 2017
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000-003 Questions and Answers

000-003


  1. IBM will provide legal, accounting, or auditing advice.

  2. Customers are responsible for ensuring their own compliance with various laws

C IBM warrants that its products or services will ensure that th customer Is in compliance with me law

D. IBM only ensures mat customers will be in compliance with Graham-Leach-Bliley Act, Sarbanes- Oxley Act, and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act


Answer: B


QUESTION: 100

A customer needs to have a federated single sign-on with a requirement not to have any user identifiable information transmitted between parties. Which two protocols supported by IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager fulfill this requirement? (Choose two.)


  1. SAMLVI.O

  2. LibertyVl.2

  3. LibertyVl.1

  4. WS-Federation

  5. WS-Provisioning


Answer: B, C


QUESTION: 101

Which statement best describes IBM Tivoli Security Compliance Manager (Tivoli Security Compliance Manager)?


  1. Tivoli Security Compliance Manager analyzes system, middleware and network devices security controls, and parameters according to a configurable schedule

  2. Tivoli Security Compliance Manager analyzes system. Middleware and network devices security logs against a given security policy, and provides deviations.

  3. Tivoli Security Compliance Manager extracts system, Middleware and network devices security controls and parameters, compares them against a given security policy and provides deviations.

  4. Tivoli Security Compliance Manager extracts system. Middleware and network devices security controls, and parameters, compares them against a given security policy,

and provides a qualitative risk evaluation report


Answer: C


QUESTION: 102

A business partner 01 IBM, specializing in security products, is interested in setting up a specific system configured to simulate a few common network services. They want to intentionally leave it exposed to me external network access, In order to attract would-be attackers and study their attack patterns which term is used to denote such a system?


  1. Proxy

  2. Honeypot

  3. Web Server

  4. Bastion Host


Answer: B


QUESTION: 103

Which security token may carry user attribute information as part of the defined token format?


  1. Kerberos

  2. RACF Token

  3. SAML Assertion

  4. Username Token


Answer: C


QUESTION: 104

Which information should a customers baseline document include?


  1. description of IT organization and environment

  2. list of all user IDs and passwords in me enterprise

  3. comprehensive list of all audited elements in the network

  4. detailed description of the customers original network configuration


Answer: A


QUESTION: 105

Which to business goals are accomplished through the implementation of a successful automated security management process? (Choose two.)


  1. reduce impact or threats

  2. increase data availability

  3. increase data duplication

  4. eliminate any risk of frauds

  5. reduce the cost of ownership


Answer: A, E


QUESTION: 106

In the meetings with a company’s key players, Information is garnered on the company’s operating system environments It is discovered mat the customer relies on native operating system security to secure access to these systems This Information will help in developing a baseline document describing the customers current security design What are three security gaps mat result from me use of native operating system security? (Choose three)


  1. user management

  2. centralized auditing

  3. group management

  4. network access control

  5. password management

  6. file system management


Answer: A, B, C


QUESTION: 107

Which IBM Tivoli product, part of the zsecure suite, provides integrated remediation for IBM Tivoli zSecure Audit?


  1. IBM Tivoli zSecure Alert

  2. IBM Tivoli zSecure Admin

  3. IBM Tivoli Enterprise Console

  4. IBM Tivoli zsecure Operations Manager


Answer: B


QUESTION: 108

Which IBM Tivoli security product provides single sign-on (SSO) support for both UNIX Telnet and host-based mainframe applications?


  1. IBM Tivoli Identity Manager

  2. IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager

  3. IBM Tivoli Access Manager for e-business

  4. IBM Tivoli Access Manager for Enterprise SSO


Answer: D


QUESTION: 109

A customer says We are going through the latest big initiative right now. The focus is on me time to market with new, bigger, and better Web-based business applications We have no time for implementing stronger security and we do not see how you can help us with this What is me primary security requirement Indicated by me customers statement?


  1. Standards-based federated identity management toots are required

  2. User management and provisioning can help this customer achieve more efficient and effective processes.

  3. Strong risk management infrastructure will eliminate the need for security in these applications, allowing me focus to be on business logic.

  4. More consistent authentication and authorization service-oriented architecture is needed for the applications, saving application development time


Answer: D


QUESTION: 110

Which two standard-based interoperabilities does IBM Tivoli Security Policy Manager deliver? (Choose two.)


  1. SOX. HIPAA,, ISO 27001, and GLBA

  2. XML structure Websphere Plug-in

  3. XACML standard for entitlements management

  4. WS-Policy, WS-Security Policy for SOA security

  5. SAML 10, WS-Federation, Liberty 1 .1. and WS-Provisioning


Answer: C, D


IBM 000-003 Exam (Fundamentals of Applying Tivoli Security and Compliance Management Solutions V2) Detailed Information

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000-003 exam :: Article by ArticleForgeStairway to superior T-SQL stage 8: capabilities to Generate Date and Time values

if you happen to build purposes that shop information in SQL Server you're going to most likely must keep date and time values as part of the information. To control the entire distinctive date related initiatives you could deserve to perform Microsoft has introduced a number of date features. in this stairway I will be exploring these date and time capabilities.

SQL Server 2014 introduces a number of high precision records/time features. by "excessive precision" I mean the time element of a date/time has an correct of 100 nanoseconds. Datatypes that covered time values that were attainable in previous models have plenty less accuracy and precision.

the primary high precision date/time characteristic is SYSDATETIME. This feature returns the device date and time for the computer that's operating SQL Server. The price lower back is a datetime2 records class with a precision of seven. The code in checklist 1 suggests the way to name this characteristic.

choose SYSDATETIME() as SYSDATETIME_Value;

record 1: Code to call the SYSDATETIME feature

when I run the code in list 1 I get the results in result 1.

SYSDATETIME_Value --------------------------- 2015-08-31 06:19:02.1914694

effect 1: effects when checklist 1 is completed

by reviewing the output in influence 1 that you could see that the fractional seconds of the time portion incorporates 7 digits, or an extra manner to place it the time portion has a precision of seven.

if you are looking to take the device information and time and vicinity it into column cost within a desk you can run the code in record 2.

SET NOCOUNT ON; USE tempdb; GO -- create table to populate CREATE table SYSDATETIME_Test (identity int identity(1,1), SYSDATETIME_Value DATETIME2(7)); -- SYSDATETIME() value into column INSERT INTO SYSDATETIME_Test(SYSDATETIME_Value) select SYSDATETIME(); -- display inserted price choose * FROM SYSDATETIME_Test; DROP table SYSDATETIME_Test;

listing 2: Create/Populate a table column with the price again from the SYSDATETIME() characteristic

after I run the code in record 2 I get the effects in influence 2.

effect 2: outcomes when record 2 is accomplished

SYSDATETIME_Value --------------------------- 2015-08-31 06:19:02.1914694

via reviewing the output in result 2 that you may see that the time component of the SYSDATETIME_Value column changed into populated with a datetime2 value that has a precision of seven digits.

The subsequent excessive precision gadget feature i'll discuss is SYSDATETIMEOFFSET. This system characteristic returns the existing server time, and time zone offset. that you would be able to see what this feature returns by means of working the code in list three.

choose SYSDATETIMEOFFSET() AS SYSDATETIMEOFFSET;

record three: Executing SYSDATETIMEOFFSET

when I run the code in list 3 I get the effects in outcomes 3.

SYSDATETIMEOFFSET ---------------------------------- 2015-09-01 06:20:40.4243538 -07:00

result three: results when listing three is accomplished

From reviewing the output in result three that you would be able to see that the code in listing three returns a gadget date where the time component has 7 digits of precision. additional output changed into "-07:00", which is the time zone offset. This time zone value means my local computing device time is 7 time zones to the west of Coordinated accepted Time (UTC). UTC is the time on the Greenwich meridian, which is not adjusted daylight hours reductions time.

The last excessive precision equipment characteristic is SYSUTCDATETIME. This function returns the UTC time. if in case you have machines discovered in a few diverse time zones and you've got a requirement that each one transaction have the same absolute time no be counted which computing device processed that transaction, then using the cost lower back from SYSUTCDATETIME will meet this requirement. The instance in listing 4 suggests what UTC time is when my desktop has a local time that has a time zone off set of "-07:00".

select SYSUTCDATETIME() AS "UTC Time", SYSDATETIME() AS "native Time" DATEADD(HH,-7,SYSUTCDATETIME()) AS "Calculate local Time”;

record 4: screen UTC Time, local Time and Calculated local Time

once I run the code in listing four I get the outcomes in influence 4. notice the output has been reformatted for read 000-003ability.

UTC Time local Time --------------------------- --------------------------- 2015-09-03 13:18:43.7449138 2015-09-03 06:18:43.7449138 Calculate native Time --------------------------- 2015-09-03 06:18:forty three.7449138

influence four: results when listing 4 is finished

In results 4 that you may see that my present native time on my machine is "06:18:forty three.7449138", whereas UTC time is 7 hours later with a worth of "13:18:43.7449138". moreover I used the DATEADD function to subtract the 7 hours from UTC time to calculate the local time primarily based off the UTC time.

There are three device services that return date/time values with a lessen precision than the excessive precision date and time capabilities. The reduce precision equipment facts and time services have a fractional 2d element that is rounded to an accuracy of one of here: .000, .003, .007. In list 5 below I demonstrate you the diverse values returned from each and every of these low precision date and time functions.

choose CURRENT_TIMESTAMP AS 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP', GETDATE() AS 'GETDATE', GETUTCDATE() AS 'GETUTCDATE';

list 5: monitor low precision Date/Time values

when I run the code in list 5 I get the results in influence 5. be aware the output has been reformatted for read 000-003ability.

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP GETDATE ----------------------- ----------------------- 2015-09-05 07:04:28.123 2015-09-05 07:04:28.123 GETUTCDATE ----------------------- 2015-09-05 14:04:28.123

result 5: effects when listing 5 is carried out

with the aid of looking at the outcomes in effect 5 which you could see that the CURRENT_TIMESTAMP and GETDATE() features return the same value, which is the current date and time on my desktop. there is definitely no change between the CURRENT_TIMESTAMP and GETDATE() values. The handiest actual distinctive is the CURRENT_TIMESTAMP characteristic is ANSI SQL compliant. therefore in case you want your code to be ANSI SQL compliant then use CURRENT_TIMESTAMP. if you seem to be at the outcomes of the GETUTCDATE in outcomes 5 you're going to see that it didn't return the current time, as an alternative it return the UTC date and time, which in my case is 7 hours later than the present server time.

there are times for those who could need to get just a chunk of the date, just like the hour, day, or month. SQL Server provides right here 4 features for returning distinctive elements of the date:

The DATEPART characteristic returns an integer price for a particular date part. To call this characteristic you need to use here syntax:

DATEPART(<Date half>, <date>)

where:

<Date part> - Represents the date half you are looking to return. The <Date part> price must be one of the following distinct date elements:

Date elementAbbreviations 12 months yy, yyyy quarter qq, q month mm, m dayofyear dy, y Day dd, d week wk, ww weekday Dw hour Hh minute mi, m 2nd ss, s millisecond Ms microsecond mcs TZoffset Tz ISO_WEEK isowk, isoww

<date> - Is a literal string, expression, person described variable, or column value that equates to a legitimate date, smalldatetime, datetime, datetime2 or datetimeoffset data value.

To reveal how the DATAPART function works let me run the code in listing 6.

DECLARE @nowadays DATETIME = '2015-09-08 06:15:43.390'; select DATEPART(dd,@today) AS 'Day' ,DATEPART(mm,@today) AS 'Month' ,DATEPART(yy,@today) AS 'year' ,DATEPART(hh,@nowadays) AS 'Hour' ,DATEPART(mi,@today) AS 'Minute' ,DATEPART(ss,@nowadays) AS '2nd' ,DATEPART(ms,@these days) AS 'Millisecond';

record 6: screen date elements

after I run the code in record 6 I get the results in outcome 6. observe the output has been reformatted for read 000-003ability.

Day Month year Hour Minute ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- 8 9 2015 6 15 2nd Millisecond ----------- ----------- 43 390

effect 6: results when record 6 is executed

through taking a look at checklist 6 that you can see that I called the DATEPART characteristic a couple of distinct instances. every time I known as the DATEPART function I used a unique date half price. by means of looking at the output in influence 6 that you could see the different date half values back when I move the literal string '2015-09-08 06:15:43.390' with diverse date parts for each call to the DATEPART function.

The next characteristic i could explain is the DAY characteristic. This function returns the day of the month and has here calling syntax:

DAY (<date>)

where:

  • <date> - Is a literal string, expression, user defined variable, or column value that equates to a valid date, smalldatetime, datetime, datetime2 or datetimeoffset.
  • To show how the DAY characteristic returns the day of the month let's run the code in record 7.
  • choose DAY('2015-09-08') AS 'Day of the Month 1' ,DAY('2015-09-12') AS 'Day of the Month 2';

    record 7: execute DAY feature with distinctive date values

    when I run the code in record 7 I get the results in influence 7.

    Day of the Month 1 Day of the Month 2 ------------------ ------------------ 8 12

    effect 7: consequences when list 7 is achieved

    in case you evaluate the code in listing 7 after which the output in effect 7 you're going to see when the date price is "2015-09-08" the DAY characteristic returns cost 8. The rationale 8 and never 08 is because the DAY characteristic returns an integer cost, and for this reason the leading 0 is dropped. When date value is "2015-09-12", the DAY feature returns the integer cost 12.

    The next characteristic I can be describing is the MONTH function. This function returns the month value, as an integer price between 1 and 12. This feature has here syntax:

    MONTH (<date>)

    where:

    <date> - Is a worth is an expression, column cost expression, user defined variable, or a literal string that equates to a date, smalldatetime, datetime, datetime2 or datetypeoffset price.

    To exhibit the use of the MONTH function I should be working the TSQL code in checklist 8.

    opt for MONTH('2015-09-09 05:01') 'Month 1' ,MONTH('17:00') AS 'Month 2';

    listing eight: Execute MONTH function with diverse date values

    after I run the code in listing 8 I get the consequences in result 8.

    Month 1 Month 2 ----------- ----------- 9 1

    outcome eight: results when listing 8 is completed

    in case you assessment the outcomes that you can see that the first time I called the MONTH characteristic I handed the feature a datetime value of '2015-09-09 05:01'. When this price become past to the MONTH feature the characteristic lower back an integer price of 9. On the 2nd select remark I passed '17:00' to the MONTH function and it returned a month cost of 1. The purpose it returned 1 is since the MONTH feature assumes a date of '1900-01-01' when handiest a time element is shipped to the month function.

    The remaining function i will assessment in the part is the year characteristic. This feature returns the 12 months cost and has the following syntax:

    12 months (<date>)

    where:

    <date> - Is an expression that resolves to a date data category.

    To display the 12 months characteristic i'll be running the code in list 9.

    opt for year('2015-09-09 05:01') AS 'yr 1' ,12 months('September 2016') AS '12 months 2';

    listing 9: execute yr feature with distinctive date values

    once I run the code in listing 9 I get the effects in result 9.

    12 months 1 yr 2 ----------- ----------- 2015 2016

    effect 9: outcomes when list 9 is performed

    if you review the outcomes found in outcomes 9 which you can see after I flow the datetime price of '2015-09-09 05:01', I obtained back the year price of '2015'. that you would be able to also see when I passed the text price of 'September 2016' the feature again a worth of '2016'.

    there are occasions you wish to create a datetime price by means of putting collectively the 12 months, month, and day values of a date. With the introduction of SQL Server 2012 there are a few diverse services if you want to permit you to construct date and time values from date components. i will be able to go through each and every of these functions and display you how they work. however first i will focus on the parameters.

    In table 1 is a complete checklist of the distinctive records and time parameters. i'll use these parameters within the examples in this part:

    Parameter Description 12 months Is an integer expression that represents the yr. month Is an integer expression that represents the month. day Is an integer expression that represents the day. hours Is an integer expression that represents the hour. minutesIs an integer expression that represents minutes. seconds Is an integer expression that represents seconds. milliseconds Is a integer expression that represents the milliseconds. fractions Is an integer expression that represents fraction of seconds. must be zero if precision is zero. hour_offset Is an integer expression that identifies the hour offset of the datetimeoffset returned. minute_offset Is an integer expression that identifies the minute offset of the datetimeoffset back. precision Is an integer expression that identifies the precision of the datetimeoffset value again. can also be a price from 0 to 7. If 0 is used then the <fractions> parameter also must zero.

    table 1: checklist of parameters

    As I demonstrate you examples below, that you could consult with desk 1 to find the descriptions for any of the parameters.

    the first function I should be taking a look at is the DATEFROMPARTS function. This characteristic has here syntax: DATEFROMPARTS (<12 months>, <month>, <day>)

    To demonstrate the DATEFROMPARTS characteristic I will be operating the code in checklist 10.

    select DATEFROMPARTS(2015,10,30) AS 'DATEFROMPARTS 1' ,DATEFROMPARTS('9999','12','31') AS 'DATEFROMPARTS 2';

    checklist 10: Execute DATEFROMPARTS feature with parameter date values

    once I run the code in listing 10 I get the results in result 10.

    DATEFROMPARTS 1 DATEFROMPARTS 2 --------------- --------------- 2015-10-30 9999-12-31

    result 10: effects when checklist 10 is carried out

    if you seem to be on the code in record 10 which you could see in the first feature call to DATEFROMPARTS I handed the integer values 2015, 10 , and 30 as parameter to the DATEFROMPARTS characteristic. in case you analyze outcomes 10, that you could see this feature call again the date value of "2015-10-30", below the column heading DATEFROMPARTS 1. The effect column DATEFROMPART 2 is "9999-12-13" is what was lower back from my 2nd name to DATEFROMPARTS feature after I passed here 3 persona values: '9999', '12', and '31'.

    The next function I could be discussing is the DATETIMEFROMPARTS. This feature will return a datetime value and has here syntax: DATETIMEFROMPARTS (<year>, <month>, <day>, <hour>, <minute>, <seconds>, <milliseconds>)

    To demo the DATETIMEFROMPARTS characteristic I may be working the code in list eleven.

    select DATETIMEFROMPARTS(2015,10,30, 13,fifty nine,fifty nine,998) AS 'DATETIMEFROMPARTS 1', DATETIMEFROMPARTS(2015,10,30, 13,fifty nine,59,999) AS 'DATETIMEFROMPARTS 2';

    listing eleven: Execute DATETIMEFROMPARTS characteristic with parameter date values

    after I run the code in record 11 I get the consequences in result 11.

    DATETIMEFROMPARTS 1 DATETIMEFROMPARTS 2 ----------------------- ----------------------- 2015-10-30 13:fifty nine:fifty nine.997 2015-10-30 14:00:00.000

    result 11: results when checklist 11 is achieved

    In checklist eleven you can see the first time I known as the characteristic DATETIMEFROMPARTS I used these parameters: 2015, 10, 30, 13, 10, 12, 998 and i got lower back a datetime price of '2015-10-30 13:10:12,997'. that you may see this through looking on the DATETIMEFROMPART 1 column in outcomes 11. notice that I didn't get a datetime cost with a millisecond atmosphere of 998. here's since the fractional seconds element of datetime values is rounded to an accuracy of one of right here values: .000, .003, and .007. hence when I passed in 998 for the millisecond parameter the DATETIMEFROMPARTS had to circular to 997. if you seem on the 2nd DATETIMEFROMPARTS characteristic name that you would be able to see I also got a rounded millisecond cost. This time I handed a millisecond value of 999, and it acquired rounded up to 000. on account of the rounding of milliseconds up, it additionally caused the 2d cost to also be rounded as much as 13, as an alternative of the 12 that I handed to the characteristic.

    The subsequent characteristic is DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS. The DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS characteristic returns a datetimeoffset price the use of right here syntax: DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS(<yr>, <month>, <day>, <hour>, <minute>, <seconds>, <fractions>, <hour_offset>, <minute_offset>, <precision>).

    To support you enhanced keep in mind the different parameters a bit enhanced let me run the TSQL found in list 12.

    opt for DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS(2015,10,30, 13,59,fifty nine,1234567,7,59,7) AS 'DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS 1', DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS(2015,10,30, 13,59,fifty nine,123,7,59,3) AS 'DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS 2', DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS(2015,10,30, 13,59,fifty nine,0,7,59,0) AS 'DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS 3';

    checklist 12: Execute DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS function with parameter date values

    when I run the code in listing 12 I get the outcomes in result 12. notice the code in result 12 has been reformatted for read 000-003ability.

    DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS 1 DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS 2 ---------------------------------- ------------------------------ 2015-10-30 13:fifty nine:fifty nine.1234567 +07:fifty nine 2015-10-30 13:59:59.123 +07:59 DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS 3 ---------------------------------- 2015-10-30 13:fifty nine:59 +07:59

    result 12: consequences when listing 12 is done

    if you reviewing the code in list 12 you're going to see there are three distinctive DATETIMEOFFSETROMPARTS characteristic calls, where in every name to the DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS function makes use of a different precision and fractions with the same Hour_Offset and Minute_Offset values. by way of reviewing output in effect 12 you can see how the distinctive precision and fractions value affected the datetimeoffset values lower back from each and every name to the DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS function. the first datetimeoffset cost proven in influence 12 has a fractional seconds cost that has a precision of 7, the 2d one has a precision of 3, and the last one has a precision of 0. It should be would becould very well be value noting, that if the fractions parameter has a value that has extra precision then the precision parameter then the question will fail with a "can't construct date class datetimeoffset…" error message. The final DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS function name I passed a worth of 0 for the fractions parameter because of the requirement when the precision parameter is 0.

    The subsequent feature to overview is the SMALLDATETIMEFROMPARTS feature. When this function is referred to as it returns a smalldatetime value. This feature has here syntax: SMALLDATETIMEFROMPARTS (<12 months>, <month>, <day>, <hour>, <minute>).

    The SMALLDATETIMEFROMPARTS function returns a smalldatetime price. With this characteristic you could most effective specify the time component down the minute. hence the characteristic will always return 00 for the 2d's price of the smalldatetime value back. Let's evaluation a couple of examples.

    choose SMALLDATETIMEFROMPARTS ( 2015, 09, 15, 23, fifty nine ) AS FirstSmallDateTime ,SMALLDATETIMEFROMPARTS ( 2015, 09, 30, 23, fifty nine ) AS SecondSmallDateTime;

    record 13: Execute SMALLDATETIMEFROMPARTS characteristic with parameter values

    when I run the code in record 13 I get the results in result 13.

    FirstSmallDateTime SecondSmallDateTime ----------------------- ----------------------- 2015-09-15 23:59:00 2015-09-30 23:59:00

    outcome 13: effects when record 13 is performed

    in case you overview the output in effect 13 you will see a smalldatetime value back for both distinct calls to the SMALLDATETIMEFROMPARTS functions. word that for each and every smalldatetime value back the seconds are set to "00". moreover in case you send an invalid cost for one or extra of the parameters to the characteristic then you definitely will get an error. as an example passing a day cost of 31 in case you pass a 09 from the month would produce a parameter validation error because there is not a day 31 within the month of September.

    The last of the date part functions is TIMEFROMPARTS. This characteristic permits you to create a time records class from ingredients. This characteristic has the following syntax: TIMEFROMPARTS (<hour>, <minute>, <seconds>, <fractions>, <precision>).

    To stronger have in mind the TIMEFROMPARTS function let me run the code in checklist 14.

    select TIMEFROMPARTS(13,fifty nine,fifty nine,998,7) 'TIMEFROMPARTS 1', TIMEFROMPARTS(13,fifty nine,59,ninety nine,2) 'TIMEFROMPARTS 2', TIMEFROMPARTS(13,fifty nine,59,9980000,7) 'TIMEFROMPARTS 3', TIMEFROMPARTS(13,fifty nine,59,0,0) AS 'TIMEFROMPARTS 4';

    listing 14: Execute TIMEFROMPARTS characteristic with parameter values

    after I run the code in record 14 I get the outcomes in outcome 14.

    TIMEFROMPARTS 1 TIMEFROMPARTS 2 TIMEFROMPARTS 3 TIMEFROMPARTS four ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- 13:fifty nine:59.0000998 13:59:59.99 13:fifty nine:fifty nine.9980000 13:59:59

    effect 14: outcomes when checklist 14 is achieved

    by way of reviewing the code in checklist 14 that you could see that i'm calling the TIMEFROMPARTS feature four distinctive times. For every feature call, I specify a unique fractions and precision values. notice that for the primary TIMEFROMPART feature name I had a fractions value of 998 and a precision value of seven. here the precision price of 7 specifies that there can be more digits of precision then I certain with the fractions parameter. on account of this when SQL Server carried out the TIMEFROMPARTS feature it had to pad zeroes to the left side of the fractions parameter. It padded enough zeroes to make the fraction 7 digits lengthy. in case you seem on the 2d TIMEFROMPARTS characteristic name you'll see I particular a fractions parameter price of ninety nine and a precision price of 2. be aware here I designated the equal variety of digits within the factions parameter as I precise for the precision parameter. It might possibly be price maintaining in mind that you should specify a precision cost that supports greater precision than the fractions parameter value unique, but you cannot specify a precision cost that has less precision than represented by using the fractions parameter. On the remaining feature call I made in checklist 14 to the TIMEFROMPARTS feature I detailed a 0 for the precision function. because I did this I also needed to have a fractions parameter price of 0. If the fractions parameter value changed into not 0 when I specified a precision value of 0 then i would have gotten an error.

    producing date and time values is never basically an advanced theme, however there are lots of subtleties you should be aware of. When settling on and the usage of a date/time characteristic you deserve to be sure you take into account the rounding considerations that may ensue, as smartly as the precision of the date/time values generated. knowing the concerns will aid you assess the proper characteristic and calling parameters the subsequent time you need to generate a date/time price from some of the functions I explored in this degree.

    in this area you can review how smartly you have got understood the use of the distinct date and time feature via answering right here questions.

    query 1:

    what's the change between the DATEFROMPARTS and DATEPART features?

  • The DATEFROMPARTS feature returns a date part cost and the DATEPART function generates a date value from parts.
  • The DATEFROMPARTS feature generates a date price from components and the DATEPART function returns a date part price.
  • The DATEFROMPARTS feature determines if date ingredients are legitimate and DATEPART returns a date cost.
  • The DATEFROMPARTS function returns a date part price, and DATEPART determines if the date part is legitimate.
  • question 2:

    Which features could have rounding concerns (choose all that observe)?

  • DATETIMEFROMPARTS
  • DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS
  • SMALLDATETIMEFROMPARTS
  • TIMEFROMPARTS
  • query 3:

    Which of these capabilities generates a date and time value that consists of a time zone?

  • SMALLDATETIMEFROMPARTS
  • DATETIMEFROMPARTS
  • DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS
  • TIMEFROMPARTS
  • solutions: query 1:

    The relevant reply b.

    query 2:

    The relevant reply is a. DATETIMEFROMPARTS is the handiest function that rounds the fractional seconds. It rounds to one of here: .000, .003, .007..

    question 3:

    The proper reply is c. The SMALLDATETIMEFROMPARTS generates a smalldatetime value, with no time zone. The DATETIMEFROMPARTS generates a datetime value, but that price does not include a time zone. The TIMEFROMPARTS generates a time cost without the time zone.


    mid_solutions.pdf - CS/SE 3341 closing identify: First name: The...

    Unformatted text preview: CS/SE 3341 last name: First identify: The Midterm Examination - options • There are 5 complications on this examination. You need to solve any four and point out which difficulty you skip. If no problem is certainly marked as skipped, simplest the first 4 problems will be graded. • problem skipped: • each issue = 20 elements. complete elements = eighty. Time = 1 hour 15 minutes. • show your work. No features can be given if the applicable work is not proven, in spite of the fact that the answer is proper. • A formulation sheet and table of distributions are attached at the conclusion of this examination. • Take a deep breath and relax. 1. suppose that 10% of inmates in a large penal complex are generic to be innocent. A non-earnings neighborhood randomly selects 20 inmates from this penal complex. locate the probability the neighborhood will locate at the least 3 innocent inmates. answer. this is P (X ≥ 3), the place X is the number of innocent inmates, out of 20. here's a couple of successes in n = 20 Bernoulli trials with the likelihood of success p = 0.10. consequently, X is Binomial(n = 20, p = 0.10), and from the desk of Binomial distribution, P (X ≥ three) = 1 − F (2) = 1 − 0.677 = 0.323 . 2. consider that there are two sites, A and B, for renting books. The web page A receives 60% of all orders. among the many orders placed on web page A, 75% arrive on time. among the many orders placed on site B, ninety% arrive on time. because an order arrived on time, find the chance that the order changed into placed on web site B. answer. Denote the movements, A = the order is placed on web web page A B = the order is positioned on net web page B T = the order is acquired on time Given: P (A) = 0.6, P (B) = 0.four, P (T |A) = 0.75, P (T |B) = 0.9. by way of the Bayes Rule, P (B|T ) = = P (T |B)P (B) P (T |B)P (B) = P (T ) P (T |A)P (A) + P (T |B)P (B) 4 (0.9)(0.four) 0.36 = = or 0.4444 , (0.seventy five)(0.6) + (0.9)(0.4) 0.45 + 0.36 9 the place the legislations of complete chance became used to compute P (T ). 3. Let random variable X denote the time (in years) it takes to advance a software. think that X has right here chance density function: x if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2, 2 f (x) = 0 in any other case. (a) Compute the probability that it takes more than 6 months to strengthen the application. (b) Compute the expected number of years it takes to advance a software. solution. ∫ (b) E(X) = 2 f (x)dx = (a) P (X > 1/2 years ) = 1/2 ∫ ∫ ∞ ∫ 2 xf (x)dx = 0 1/2 x=2 x 1 x2 15 =1− dx = = or 0.9375. 2 four x=1/2 sixteen sixteen x=2 x2 x3 eight 4 = −0= dx = or 1.3333 years 2 6 x=0 6 3 4. Let X and Y be the variety of interceptions made with the aid of the host and travelling groups in a soccer video game. The joint likelihood mass function of X and Y is given in the desk, P (x, y) 0 y 1 2 x 0 1 2 0.36 0.14 0.10 0.14 0.10 0.02 0.10 0.02 0.02 (a) Are X and Y independent? Justify your answer. (b) discover E(Y ). (c) Let Z = XY . discover the likelihood mass feature of Z. solution. (a) X and Y are independent if P (x, y) = PX (x)PY (y) for all x and y. Compute the marginal pmf of X by adding the joint pmf P (x, y) over all values of y, PX (0) = 0.36 + 0.14 + 0.10 = 0.60, PX (1) = 0.26, PX (2) = 0.14. Compute the marginal pmf of Y by using including the joint pmf P (x, y) over all values of x, PY (0) = 0.36 + 0.14 + 0.10 = 0.60, PY (1) = 0.26, PY (2) = 0.14. Now, X and Y aren't unbiased because, for example, P (1, 1) = 0.10 isn't equal to PX (1)PY (1) = (0.26)(0.26) = 0.0676. (b) E(Y ) = 2 ∑ yPY (y) = (0)(0.60) + (1)(0.26) + (2)(0.14) = 0.fifty four y=0 (c) When X = 0, 1, 2 and Y = 0, 1, 2, their product Z = XY takes values 0, 1, 2, and four. It is still to discover the probability of each and every cost of Z, z 0 1 2 four PZ (z) 0.36 + 0.14 + 0.10 + 0.14 + 0.10 = 0.84 0.10 0.02 + 0.02 = 0.04 0.02 5. believe that the time it takes to get carrier in a restaurant follows a gamma distribution with mean 8 minutes and average deviation 4 minutes. (a) locate the parameters r and λ of the gamma distribution. (b) You went to this restaurant at 6:30. what is the likelihood that you're going to receive service before 6:36? solution. (a) For this Gamma distribution of X, we've E(X) = r =eight λ and r Std(X) = √ = 4. λ find parameters through solving these two equations for r and λ, Std(X) √ = λ = 1/2 E(X) ⇒ λ = 1/4 , r = 8λ = 2 (b) the use of the Gamma-Poisson method with a Gamma(r = 2, λ = 1/four) variable X and a Poisson(λx = 1/four · 6 = 1.5) variable Y , we get P (X < 6 minutes) = P (Y ≥ r) = P (Y ≥ 2) = 1 − F (1) = 1 − 0.558 = 0.442 , from the Poisson distribution table with parameter 1.5. CS/SE 3341 last identify: First name: The Midterm Examination - solutions • There are five problems in this exam. You deserve to clear up any four and point out which issue you skip. If no problem is clearly marked as skipped, only the first 4 issues should be graded. • problem skipped: • each and every problem = 20 features. complete facets = 80. Time = 1 hour 15 minutes. • exhibit your work. No aspects can be given if the applicable work isn't proven, despite the fact that the reply is suitable. • A method sheet and table of distributions are connected on the end of this exam. • Take a deep breath and calm down. 1. all the way through a severe thunderstorm, any transmission line is broken with probability 0.04, independently of other transmission lines. A city with seventy five transmission lines is hit via a severe thunderstorm. what is the chance that at least 5 of them get damaged? answer. here's P (X ≥ 5), where X is the number of broken transmission lines, out of 75. here's a couple of successes in n = seventy five Bernoulli trials with the likelihood of success p = 0.04. therefore, X is Binomial(n = seventy five, p = 0.04), gigantic n and small p, so X is approximately Poisson with parameter λ = np = (75)(0.04) = three. From the table of Poisson distribution, P (X ≥ 5) = 1 − F (4) = 1 − 0.815 = 0.185 . 2. every laptop in a lab has a 15% possibility to be contaminated with a virus. If a laptop is infected, an antivirus utility finds the virus with likelihood 0.9. If a laptop isn't infected, the utility will nonetheless generate a false alarm and report an epidemic with likelihood 0.10. If the antivirus utility reviews a deadly disease, what is the likelihood that certainly, the computer is infected? solution. Denote the activities, I = computing device is infected R = the software reviews a plague ¯ = 0.85, P (R|I) = 0.9, P (R|I) ¯ = 0.1. Given: P (I) = 0.15, P (I) through the Bayes Rule, P (I|R) = = P (R|I)P (I) P (R|I)P (I) = ¯ (I) ¯ P (R) P (R|I)P (I) + P (R|I)P 27 (0.9)(0.15) 0.135 = = or 0.6136 , (0.9)(0.15) + (0.1)(0.85) 0.a hundred thirty five + 0.085 forty four the place the legislation of total probability was used to compute P (R). three. accept as true with a computer that has two operating techniques put in on it. Let X and Y denote the variety of times the laptop freezes in a day when it runs on the primary and the 2d working systems, respectively. P (x, y) 0 x 1 2 y 0 1 2 0.50 0.05 0.12 0.10 0.07 0.01 0.08 0.06 0.01 (a) Are X and Y unbiased? Justify your reply. (b) locate E(X). (c) Let Z = XY , which is the manufactured from X and Y . find the chance mass function of Z. answer. (a) X and Y are unbiased if P (x, y) = PX (x)PY (y) for all x and y. Compute the marginal pmf of X with the aid of adding the joint pmf P (x, y) over all values of y, PX (0) = 0.50 + 0.05 + 0.12 = 0.sixty seven, PX (1) = 0.18, PX (2) = 0.15. Compute the marginal pmf of Y via including the joint pmf P (x, y) over all values of x, PY (0) = 0.50 + 0.10 + 0.08 = 0.sixty eight, PY (1) = 0.18, PY (2) = 0.14. Now, X and Y don't seem to be impartial because, for example, P (0, 0) = 0.50 is not equal to PX (0)PY (0) = (0.sixty seven)(0.68) = 0.4556. (b) E(X) = 2 ∑ xPX (x) = (0)(0.67) + (1)(0.18) + (2)(0.15) = 0.48 x=0 (c) When X = 0, 1, 2 and Y = 0, 1, 2, their product Z = XY takes values 0, 1, 2, and 4. It continues to be to find the probability of each and every value of Z, z 0 1 2 four PZ (z) 0.50 + 0.10 + 0.08 + 0.05 + 0.12 = 0.85 0.07 0.06 + 0.01 = 0.07 0.01 4. Let random variable X denote the time (in years) it takes to advance a utility. suppose that X has the following likelihood density feature: four if 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 5x f (x) = 0 otherwise. (a) Compute the probability that it takes greater than three months to boost the application. (b) Compute the expected variety of years it takes to boost a utility. answer. ∫ (a) P (X > 1/4 years ) = (b) E(X) = 1 4 f (x)dx = 1/4 ∫ ∫ ∞ ∫ 1 0 ( )5 1 1023 = 1− = or 0.9990. 4 1024 x=1 5 5x6 5 5x dx = = −0 = or 0.8333 years or 10 months 6 x=0 6 6 5 xf (x)dx = 5x dx = 1/four x=1 x5 x=1/4 5. Two programmers began working on their computing device classes at 9:00 am. the primary programmer will take a Uniform(a = 1 hr, b = 4 hrs) time to conclude the application. The 2d programmer will want a Gamma(r = 5, λ = 1 hrs−1 ) time. Which programmer has a better possibility to conclude earlier than eleven:00 am? solution. We need to compute P (X < 2) and P (Y < 2) for a Uniform(a = 1 hr, b = four hrs) variable X and a Gamma(r = 5, λ = 1 hrs−1 ) variable Y and examine them. For the Uniform distribution with density f (x) = ∫ ∫ 2 P (X < 2) = f (x)dx = −∞ 1 2 1 4−1 = 1/3 for 1 < x < 4, 1 dx = (1)(1/3) = 1/three or 0.3333 four−1 For the second programmer, use the Gamma-Poisson method with a Gamma(r = 5, λ = 1) variable Y and a Poisson(λx = 1 · 2 = 2) variable Z, P (Y < 2) = P (Z ≥ r) = P (Z ≥ 5) = 1 − F (four) = 1 − 0.947 = 0.053 , from the Poisson distribution desk with parameter 2. thus, the primary programmer has a better chance to conclude earlier than eleven:00 am. Cheat Sheet for the Midterm examination suggestions of chance P (B|A)P (A) P (B) Bayes Rule P (A|B) = complete probability ¯ (B) ¯ P (A) = P (A|B)P (B) + P (A|B)P n ∑ P (A|Bj )P (Bj ) P (A) = j=1 Discrete Distributions ( ) n P (x) = px (1 − p)n−x for x = 0, 1, ..., n, x ( ) n! n the place = x x!(n − x)! Binomial chance mass characteristic Geometric chance mass feature P (x) = (1 − p)x−1 p for x = 1, 2, ... e−λ λx for x = 0, 1, ... x! Poisson probability mass feature P (x) = Poisson approximation Binomial(n, p) ≈ Poisson(λ = np) for n ≥ 30, p ≤ 0.05 continuous Distributions Exponential density f (x) = λe−λx for 0 < x < ∞ Uniform density f (x) = Gamma-Poisson formula P (X < x) = P (Y ≥ r) 1 for a < x < b b−a for X ∼ Gamma(r, λ), Y ∼ Poisson(λx) Distribution Bernoulli (p) Binomial (n, p) Geometric (p) Poisson (λ) Exponential (λ) Gamma (r, λ) Uniform (a, b) E(X) p np 1 p λ 1 λ r λ a+b 2 Var(X) p(1 − p) np(1 − p) 1−p p2 λ 1 λ2 r λ2 (b − a)2 12 Binomial Cumulative Distribution feature p n x .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .forty five .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 .85 .90 .ninety five 5 0 1 2 three four .774 .977 .999 1.0 1.0 .590 .919 .991 1.0 1.0 .444 .835 .973 .998 1.0 .328 .737 .942 .993 1.0 .237 .633 .896 .984 .999 .168 .528 .837 .969 .998 .116 .428 .765 .946 .995 .078 .337 .683 .913 .990 .050 .256 .593 .869 .982 .031 .188 .500 .813 .969 .018 .131 .407 .744 .950 .010 .087 .317 .663 .922 .005 .054 .235 .572 .884 .002 .031 .163 .472 .832 .001 .016 .104 .367 .763 .000 .007 .058 .263 .672 .000 .002 .027 .165 .556 .000 .000 .009 .081 .410 .000 .000 .001 .023 .226 10 0 1 2 three 4 5 6 7 8 .599 .914 .988 .999 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .349 .736 .930 .987 .998 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .197 .544 .820 .950 .990 .999 1.0 1.0 1.0 .107 .376 .678 .879 .967 .994 .999 1.0 1.0 .056 .244 .526 .776 .922 .980 .996 1.0 1.0 .028 .149 .383 .650 .850 .953 .989 .998 1.0 .013 .086 .262 .514 .751 .905 .974 .995 .999 .006 .046 .167 .382 .633 .834 .945 .988 .998 .003 .023 .a hundred .266 .504 .738 .898 .973 .995 .001 .011 .055 .172 .377 .623 .828 .945 .989 .000 .005 .027 .102 .262 .496 .734 .900 .977 .000 .002 .012 .055 .166 .367 .618 .833 .954 .000 .001 .005 .026 .095 .249 .486 .738 .914 .000 .000 .002 .011 .047 .150 .350 .617 .851 .000 .000 .000 .004 .020 .078 .224 .474 .756 .000 .000 .000 .001 .006 .033 .121 .322 .624 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .010 .050 .a hundred and eighty .456 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .002 .013 .070 .264 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .012 .086 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 .463 .829 .964 .995 .999 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .206 .549 .816 .944 .987 .998 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .087 .319 .604 .823 .938 .983 .996 .999 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .035 .167 .398 .648 .836 .939 .982 .996 .999 1.0 1.0 1.0 .013 .080 .236 .461 .686 .852 .943 .983 .996 .999 1.0 1.0 .005 .035 .127 .297 .515 .722 .869 .950 .985 .996 .999 1.0 .002 .014 .062 .173 .352 .564 .755 .887 .958 .988 .997 1.0 .000 .005 .027 .091 .217 .403 .610 .787 .905 .966 .991 .998 .000 .002 .011 .042 .a hundred and twenty .261 .452 .654 .818 .923 .975 .994 .000 .000 .004 .018 .059 .151 .304 .500 .696 .849 .941 .982 .000 .000 .001 .006 .025 .077 .182 .346 .548 .739 .880 .958 .000 .000 .000 .002 .009 .034 .095 .213 .390 .597 .783 .909 .000 .000 .000 .000 .003 .012 .042 .113 .245 .436 .648 .827 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .015 .050 .131 .278 .485 .703 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .017 .057 .148 .314 .539 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .018 .061 .164 .352 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .017 .062 .177 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .002 .013 .056 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .005 20 1 2 three four 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .736 .925 .984 .997 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .392 .677 .867 .957 .989 .998 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .176 .405 .648 .830 .933 .978 .994 .999 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .069 .206 .411 .630 .804 .913 .968 .990 .997 .999 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .024 .091 .225 .415 .617 .786 .898 .959 .986 .996 .999 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .008 .035 .107 .238 .416 .608 .772 .887 .952 .983 .995 .999 1.0 1.0 1.0 .002 .012 .044 .118 .245 .417 .601 .762 .878 .947 .980 .994 .998 1.0 1.0 .001 .004 .016 .051 .126 .250 .416 .596 .755 .872 .943 .979 .994 .998 1.0 .000 .001 .005 .019 .055 .130 .252 .414 .591 .751 .869 .942 .979 .994 .998 .000 .000 .001 .006 .021 .058 .132 .252 .412 .588 .748 .868 .942 .979 .994 .000 .000 .000 .002 .006 .021 .058 .131 .249 .409 .586 .748 .870 .945 .981 .000 .000 .000 .000 .002 .006 .021 .057 .128 .245 .404 .584 .750 .874 .949 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .002 .006 .020 .053 .122 .238 .399 .583 .755 .882 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .005 .017 .048 .113 .228 .392 .584 .762 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .004 .014 .041 .102 .214 .383 .585 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .003 .010 .032 .087 .196 .370 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .006 .022 .067 .170 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .002 .011 .043 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .003 Poisson Cumulative Distribution function x 0 1 2 three 4 5 0.1 .905 .995 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.2 .819 .982 .999 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.three .741 .963 .996 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.4 .670 .938 .992 .999 1.00 1.00 0.5 .607 .910 .986 .998 1.00 1.00 0.6 .549 .878 .977 .997 1.00 1.00 0.7 .497 .844 .966 .994 .999 1.00 λ 0.eight .449 .809 .953 .991 .999 1.00 0.9 .407 .772 .937 .987 .998 1.00 1.0 .368 .736 .920 .981 .996 .999 1.1 .333 .699 .900 .974 .995 .999 1.2 .301 .663 .879 .966 .992 .998 1.3 .273 .627 .857 .957 .989 .998 1.four .247 .592 .833 .946 .986 .997 1.5 .223 .558 .809 .934 .981 .996 x 0 1 2 3 4 1.6 .202 .525 .783 .921 .976 1.7 .183 .493 .757 .907 .970 1.8 .one hundred sixty five .463 .731 .891 .964 1.9 .a hundred and fifty .434 .704 .875 .956 2.0 .a hundred thirty five .406 .677 .857 .947 2.1 .122 .380 .650 .839 .938 2.2 .111 .355 .623 .819 .928 λ 2.three .a hundred .331 .596 .799 .916 2.four .091 .308 .570 .779 .904 2.5 .082 .287 .544 .758 .891 2.6 .074 .267 .518 .736 .877 2.7 .067 .249 .494 .714 .863 2.eight .061 .231 .469 .692 .848 2.9 .055 .215 .446 .670 .832 three.0 .050 .199 .423 .647 .815 5 6 7 8 9 .994 .999 1.00 1.00 1.00 .992 .998 1.00 1.00 1.00 .990 .997 .999 1.00 1.00 .987 .997 .999 1.00 1.00 .983 .995 .999 1.00 1.00 .980 .994 .999 1.00 1.00 .975 .993 .998 1.00 1.00 .970 .991 .997 .999 1.00 .964 .988 .997 .999 1.00 .958 .986 .996 .999 1.00 .951 .983 .995 .999 1.00 .943 .979 .993 .998 .999 .935 .976 .992 .998 .999 .926 .971 .990 .997 .999 .916 .966 .988 .996 .999 ...View Full document


    SPSS records analysis Examples SPSS facts evaluation ExamplesProbit Regression

    Probit regression, also called a probit mannequin, is used to model dichotomous or binary influence variables. within the probit mannequin, the inverse commonplace usual distribution of the likelihood is modeled as a linear aggregate of the predictors.

    Please observe: The goal of this page is to show a way to use a number of data analysis commands. It does not cowl all aspects of the research procedure which researchers are anticipated to do. In certain, it doesn't cowl statistics cleaning and checking, verification of assumptions, model diagnostics and capabilities follow-up analyses.

    Examples

    example 1:  feel that we are interested within the elements that have an effect on no matter if a politician wins an election.  The outcome variable is binary (0/1);  win or lose.  The predictor variables of pastime are the amount of money spent on the crusade, the period of time spent campaigning negatively, and no matter if the candidate is an incumbent.

    example 2:  A researcher is interested in how variables, such as GRE (Graduate listing exam ratings), GPA (grade aspect regular), and prestige of the undergraduate institution, effect admission into graduate college. The response variable, admit/don't admit, is a binary variable.

    Description of the statistics For our data evaluation below, we are going to expand on example 2 about getting into graduate faculty. we've generated hypothetical information, which can also be bought through clicking on binary.sav. that you can shop this anyplace you love, but our examples will expect it has been kept in c:\records. First, we read 000-003 the information file into SPSS. get file = "c:\data\probit.sav".

    This information set has a binary response (effect, based) variable referred to as admit. There are three predictor variables: gre, gpa and rank. we are able to treat the variables gre and gpa as continuous. The variable rank is ordinal, it takes on the values 1 through four. institutions with a rank of 1 have the maximum status, while these with a rank of 4 have the lowest. we are able to treat rank as express. Lets delivery by looking at descriptive information.

    descriptives /variables=gre gpa. Descriptive records N minimum highest suggest Std. Deviation gre four hundred 220 800 587.70 a hundred and fifteen.517 gpa 400 2.26 four.00 three.3899 .38057 valid N (listwise) four hundred frequencies /variables = rank admit. information rank admit N legitimate 400 four hundred lacking 0 0 Frequency desk rank Frequency p.c valid p.c Cumulative % valid 1 sixty one 15.three 15.3 15.3 2 151 37.8 37.8 fifty three.0 3 121 30.three 30.3 83.three four sixty seven 16.8 16.eight one hundred.0 total 400 a hundred.0 100.0 admit Frequency percent legitimate percent Cumulative percent valid 0 273 sixty eight.3 sixty eight.3 sixty eight.3 1 127 31.eight 31.eight one hundred.0 complete four hundred 100.0 100.0 crosstabs /tables = admit by using rank. Case Processing summary cases legitimate lacking total N percent N p.c N p.c admit * rank 400 a hundred.0% 0 .0% 400 one hundred.0% admit * rank Crosstabulation count rank total 1 2 three 4 admit 0 28 ninety seven 93 fifty five 273 1 33 fifty four 28 12 127 complete 61 151 121 sixty seven 400 analysis strategies you might agree with

    under is an inventory of some evaluation methods you might also have encountered. one of the crucial strategies listed are reasonably within your budget whereas others have either fallen out of fashion or have limitations.

  • Probit regression, the focal point of this web page.
  • Logistic regression. A logit mannequin will produce results identical probit regression. The alternative of probit versus logit depends largely on individual preferences.
  • OLS regression.  When used with a binary response variable, this mannequin is known as a linear likelihood model and might be used as a means to describe conditional probabilities. despite the fact, the mistakes (i.e., residuals) from the linear chance model violate the homoskedasticity and normality of mistakes assumptions of OLS regression, resulting in invalid general error and hypothesis assessments. For a greater thorough discussion of those and different issues with the linear likelihood mannequin, see long (1997, p. 38-40).
  • Two-community discriminant feature analysis. A multivariate components for dichotomous effect variables.
  • Hotelling's T2.  The 0/1 result is turned into the grouping variable, and the previous predictors are grew to become into outcomes variables. this may produce an average examine of importance however will not provide individual coefficients for each and every variable, and it is doubtful the extent to which each and every "predictor" is adjusted for the influence of the other "predictors."
  • Probit regression

    below we use the plum command with the subcommand /link=probit to run a probit regression mannequin. After the command name (plum), the outcome variable (admit) is adopted with by rank which shows that rank is a express predictor, adopted with the aid of with gre gpa, indicating that the predictors gre and gpa should be treated as continuous.

    plum admit with the aid of rank WITH gre gpa /hyperlink=probit /print= parameter abstract.

    The output from the plum command is damaged into several sections, every of which is mentioned under

    Case Processing summary N Marginal percent admit 0 273 sixty eight.three% 1 127 31.8% rank 1 61 15.three% 2 151 37.8% three 121 30.3% 4 67 16.eight% legitimate 400 one hundred.0% lacking 0 total four hundred
  • The plum output is labeled as an ordinal regression, despite the fact, we will ascertain under (see the notice in the subsequent set of tables) that the probit hyperlink characteristic changed into used. be aware that a model with a binary effect may also be view as a distinct case of an ordinal model, the place there are simplest two categories.
  • The desk above comprises frequencies for both categorical variables admit (the influence) and rank (some of the predictors).
  • we can see that each one 400 observations were used. Fewer observations would were used if any of our variables had lacking values.
  • model becoming counsel mannequin -2 Log likelihood Chi-rectangular df Sig. Intercept best 493.620 remaining 452.057 forty one.563 5 .000 hyperlink function: Probit. Pseudo R-square Cox and Snell .099 Nagelkerke .138 McFadden .083 link characteristic: Probit.
  • The desk labeled model becoming suggestions includes two rows, one for the mannequin we requested (labeled ultimate) and one for a so called null mannequin (Intercept only). The -2 log likelihoods may also be used to evaluate model healthy of both fashions. The remaining -2 log probability for our mannequin is 452.057. The intercept-handiest mannequin has a -2 log likelihood of 493.620.
  • The chi-rectangular check statistic of forty one.563 is the difference between both -2 log likelihoods, this look at various statistic, with 5 degrees of freedom and an associated p-value of below 0.0004 tells us that the existing model suits more suitable than a model with simply an intercept.
  • Pseudo-R-squared values are a different option to examine model healthy. Three distinctive pseudo-R-squared are given within the output, but  various measures of pseudo-R-squareds exist. all of them attempt to supply counsel corresponding to that provided by means of R-squared in OLS regression; youngsters, none of them can be interpreted precisely as R-squared in OLS regression is interpreted. For a discussion of quite a lot of pseudo-R-squareds see lengthy and Freese (2006) or our FAQ page What are pseudo R-squareds?
  • Parameter Estimates Estimate Std. Error Wald df Sig. ninety five% self assurance Interval lessen bound higher bound Threshold [admit = 0] 3.323 .663 25.090 1 .000 2.023 four.623 location gre .001 .001 four.478 1 .034 .000 .003 gpa .478 .197 5.869 1 .015 .091 .864 [rank=1] .936 .245 14.560 1 .000 .455 1.417 [rank=2] .520 .211 6.091 1 .014 .107 .934 [rank=3] .124 .224 .305 1 .581 -.315 .563 [rank=4] 0a . . 0 . . . hyperlink feature: Probit. a. This parameter is determined to zero because it is redundant.
  • in the desk labeled Parameter Estimates, we see the coefficients, their common blunders, Wald check statistic with linked df and p-values, and the ninety five% confidence interval of the coefficients. The variables gre, gpa, and the terms for rank=1 and rank=2 are statistically huge. The probit regression coefficients supply the exchange within the z-ranking (also referred to as the probit index) for a one unit change in the predictor.
  • For a one unit enhance in gre, the z-rating raises by 0.001.
  • For each one unit increase in gpa, the z-ranking raises through 0.478.
  • The terms for rank have a just a little diverse interpretation. as an instance, having attended an undergraduate establishment with a rank of 1, versus an institution with a rank of four (the reference group), increases the z-score with the aid of 0.936.
  • We can also also wish to look at various the usual effect of rank, we will do this the use of the test subcommand. The test subcommand is followed by means of the name of the variable we wish to check (i.e., rank), after which one cost for each level of that variable (together with the ignored class). the first line of the test subcommand rank 1 0 0 0 indicates that we need to check that the coefficient for rank=1 is 0. To operate a dissimilar degree of freedom examine, we consist of distinct lines in the examine subcommand, all but the ultimate line is separated with the aid of a semicolon. The second and third rows indicate that we wish to look at various that the coefficients for rank=2 and rank=3 are equal to 0. observe that there isn't any should consist of a row for the fourth class of rank.

    plum admit with the aid of rank with gre gpa /link=probit /print= parameter abstract /examine rank 1 0 0 0; rank 0 1 0 0; rank 0 0 1 0.

    since the fashions are the equal, most of the output produced by the above plum command is a similar as earlier than. The handiest change is the extra output produced by the verify subcommand, handiest this portion of the output is shown beneath.

    customized hypothesis tests 1 distinction Coefficients C1 C2 C3 Threshold [admit = 0] 0 0 0 area gre 0 0 0 gpa 0 0 0 [rank=1] 1 0 0 [rank=2] 0 1 0 [rank=3] 0 0 1 [rank=4] 0 0 0 distinction consequences Contrasts Estimate Std. Error examine cost Wald df Sig. ninety five% self assurance Interval reduce sure upper certain C1 .936 .245 0 14.560 1 .000 .455 1.417 C2 .520 .211 0 6.091 1 .014 .107 .934 C3 .124 .224 0 .305 1 .581 -.315 .563 link characteristic: Probit. examine outcomes Wald df Sig. 21.361 3 .000 hyperlink characteristic: Probit.
  • the primary desk above, labeled contrast Coefficients, suggests the hypotheses we are checking out.
  • The 2nd desk gives the distinction results, as a result of every row in the verify subcommand assessments that a coefficient in the mannequin is the same as 0, these estimates, typical blunders, and so on. are equal to those from the table labeled Parameter Estimates in the main a part of the output. The one difference in this table is that the column labeled check which explicitly offers the null speculation, in our case, that each of the terms is the same as 0. (observe that different null hypotheses can be designated.)
  • The remaining desk produced with the aid of the examine subcommand, labeled test results, gives the multiple diploma of freedom check we have an interest in, the Wald check statistic of 21.361, with 3 levels of freedom, and an linked p-price of under  0.001, tells us that the usual impact of rank is statistically colossal.
  • The table labeled Parameter Estimates offers hypothesis exams for alterations between each stage of rank and the reference class. we are able to use the test subcommand to examine for modifications between the different ranges of rank. for instance, we could want to look at various for a difference in coefficients for rank=2 and rank=three. in the syntax under we now have delivered a 2nd examine subcommand. This time, the values given are 0 1 -1 0 this suggests that we need to calculate the difference between the coefficients for rank=2 and rank=three (i.e., rank=2 - rank=3).

    plum admit via rank with gre gpa /link=probit /print= parameter abstract /test rank 1 0 0 0; rank 0 1 0 0; rank 0 0 1 0 /look at various rank 0 1 -1 0.

    once again the output from the mannequin, as smartly because the output associated with the first verify subcommand are identical to those proven above, in order that they are disregarded.

    custom speculation checks 2 contrast Coefficients C1 Threshold [admit = 0] 0 region gre 0 gpa 0 [rank=1] 0 [rank=2] 1 [rank=3] -1 [rank=4] 0 distinction effects Contrasts Estimate Std. Error look at various price Wald df Sig. 95% self belief Interval lessen bound higher sure C1 .397 .168 0 5.573 1 .018 .067 .726 hyperlink feature: Probit.

    within the desk labeled distinction effects we see the change in the coefficients (i.e., 0.397). The Wald test statistic of 5.573, with one diploma of freedom, and linked p-cost of less than 0.02, indicates that the change between the coefficients for rank=2 and rank=3 is statistically tremendous. as a result of just one estimate turned into distinctive in the examine subcommand, the distinct degree of freedom verify (i.e. the verify results table) isn't printed.

    things to consider
  • Empty cells or small cells:  make sure you investigate for empty or small cells with the aid of doing a crosstab between specific predictors and the effect variable.  If a cellphone has only a few situations (a small cell), the model might also become unstable or it could now not run at all.
  • Separation or quasi-separation (also known as excellent prediction), a condition wherein the result does not vary at some stages of the unbiased variables. See our page FAQ: what is complete or quasi-finished separation in logistic/probit regression and the way can we contend with them? for information on models with superb prediction.
  • sample measurement:  each logit and probit fashions require greater circumstances than OLS regression as a result of they use maximum likelihood estimation strategies.  it is additionally vital to bear in mind that when the outcome is rare, however the usual dataset is large, it can also be elaborate to estimate a logit model.
  • Pseudo-R-squared:  many different measures of pseudo-R-squared exist. they all attempt to supply information corresponding to that supplied with the aid of R-squared in OLS regression; although, none of them can also be interpreted precisely as R-squared in OLS regression is interpreted. For a discussion of various pseudo-R-squareds see long and Freese (2006) or our FAQ web page What are pseudo R-squareds?
  • Diagnostics:  The diagnostics for logistic regression are distinct from these for OLS regression. For a dialogue of model diagnostics for logistic regression, see Hosmer and Lemeshow (2000, Chapter 5). be aware that diagnostics accomplished for logistic regression are comparable to these performed for probit regression.
  • See additionally References
  • Hosmer, D. & Lemeshow, S. (2000). utilized Logistic Regression (2d edition). ny: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • lengthy, J. Scott (1997). Regression models for categorical and restrained dependent Variables. Thousand alright, CA: Sage Publications.
  • The content material of this net site may still no longer be construed as an endorsement of any specific net web page, publication, or software product through the tuition of California.


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