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102-400 - LPI Level 1 Exam 102, Junior Level Linux Certification, Part 2 of 2 - Dump Information

Vendor : LPI
Exam Code : 102-400
Exam Name : LPI Level 1 Exam 102, Junior Level Linux Certification, Part 2 of 2
Questions and Answers : 120 Q & A
Updated On : March 22, 2018
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102-400 LPI Level 1 Exam 102, Junior Level Linux Certification, Part 2 of 2

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LPI Level 1 Exam

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true eight LPI Certification Books for the Linux knowledgeable | killexams.com real questions with brain dumps

if you want to be assured and prepared for anything else on your profession, take a look at the effective books in this record of the appropriate eight LPI certification books for the Linux knowledgeable.

You received’t leave out anything else with any of these winner guide books in hand or under your pillow!

<a href=LPIC-1CompTIA Linux+ Certification All-in-One Exam Guide" src="https://cdn.business2community.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/LPIC-1CompTIA-Linux-Certification-All-in-One-Exam-Guide.jpg" width="114" height="157"/>1. LPIC-1/CompTIA Linux+ Certification All-in-One exam e book (assessments LPIC-1/LX0-101 & LX0-102) through Robb Trac

some of the most appropriate written books on inofrmation know-how you will have study in ages, this LPI certification publication is fantastic for any one who is new to Linux administration. It also works as a refresher for superior users for assistance that they may have forgotten. It’s convenient to navigate, and the writer also makes it very convenient to use for these open e-book tests.

CompTIA Linux+ Complete Study Guide Authorized Courseware2. CompTIA Linux+ complete look at e-book authorized Courseware: exams LX0-one zero one and LX0-102 by means of Roderick W. Smith

This LPI certification ebook covers all of the needed materials for passing the exams. The counsel discussed is accurate and covers all of the themes properly. For greatest test outcomes, use every command line tool indicated in this ebook more than as soon as and discover their command line alternate options prior to taking the examination.

<a href=LPIC-2 Linux Professional Institute Certification Study Guide" src="https://cdn.business2community.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/LPIC-2-Linux-Professional-Institute-Certification-Study-Guide.jpg" width="114" height="143"/>3. LPIC-2 Linux expert Institute Certification look at e-book: checks 201 and 202 through Roderick W. Smith

After the completion of this LPI certification booklet, you’d turn out to be wanting to thank the creator. no longer in any respect boring, it remains useful and fascinating during all chapters. Its well-divided into two (2) constituents sufficient to flow the examination, together with LPIC 201 and LPIC 202. all of the questions in the booklet are additionally very corresponding to the exam.

<a href=LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell" src="https://cdn.business2community.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/LPI-Linux-Certification-in-a-Nutshell.jpg" width="111" height="166"/>4. LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell through Adam Haeder, Stephen Addison Schneiter, Bruno Gomes Pessanha and James Stanger

This LPI certification book is really concise and effective. in case you use Linux in your profession, this could help sharpen your expertise. This e-book will completely prepare you for the certification check. it's also an outstanding device for equipment administration and to make use of as a reference for anybody meaning to turn into a equipment administrator.

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<a href=LPIC-1 Linux Professional Institute Certification Study Guide" src="https://cdn.business2community.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/LPIC-1-Linux-Professional-Institute-Certification-Study-Guide.jpg" width="114" height="146"/>5. LPIC-1: Linux expert Institute Certification examine ebook: (checks a hundred and one and 102) with the aid of Roderick W. Smith

best a true master reminiscent of Roderick Smith can dominate the entire issues protected within the examination and clarify himself in perfect readability with precise-world situations and guidance. The observe exams at the end of all of the chapters are additionally astounding to test your abilities. The bonus exams are basically a have to for passing the actual tests.

<a href=LPIC-1 In Depth" src="https://cdn.business2community.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/LPIC-1-In-Depth.jpg" width="114" height="141"/>6. LPIC-1 in depth by Michael Jang

This booklet showcases fabric in an outstanding, in-depth fashion. Michael Jang’s LPI certification booklet explores the LPIC-1 exams and provides practically 500 follow inquiries to present the newest verify prep e book purchasable for both LPI stage 1 checks 101 and 102. It’s a need to for any person taking the tests, with keywords, chapter summaries, review questions and others for distinct studying paths.

<a href=LPIC I Exam Cram 2" src="https://cdn.business2community.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/LPIC-I-Exam-Cram-2.jpg" width="112" height="166"/>7. LPIC I exam Cram 2: Linux skilled Institute Certification checks one zero one and 102 by means of Ross Brunson

A review of this specific LPI certification e-book can't mirror how fantastically this publication prepares you for the LPIC examination. The beauty of it is its conciseness and ease. devoid of getting excessively drawn out and wordy, it tells you exactly what you should know via crystal clear explanations offered fantastically.

<a href=LPIC-1 Linux Professional Institute Certification Study Guide" src="https://cdn.business2community.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/LPIC-1-Linux-Professional-Institute-Certification-Study-Guide1.jpg" width="114" height="141"/>8. LPIC-1: Linux professional Institute Certification study e-book (stage 1 assessments 101 and 102) by means of Roderick W. Smith

this is the top-quality LPI certification ebook to prepare for LPIC-1. It follows LPIC-1 aims carefully, is neatly-written, and manages to hold your activity. it is additionally a fine reference for simple Linux administration. The author not simplest comprises the objectives of the exam, however gives adequate heritage that you should fill the holes.

With distinct, clear, and concise guidance offered superbly, as well as follow tests and real-world tips and scenarios, these LPI certification books are quite the handy and constructive e-book super to have around. have you found any of the books during this checklist useful? Share your experiences and let me recognize by means of leaving a comment under.

equipment logging | killexams.com real questions with brain dumps

be trained Linux, one hundred and one

What's been happening

Ian ShieldsPublished on November 28, 2017

content material sequence: This content material is part # of # in the collection: be taught Linux, one zero one

http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library?series_title_by=gain knowledge of+Linux+101

dwell tuned for further content in this collection.

This content is part of the collection:be taught Linux, one hundred and one

live tuned for additional content in this sequence.


during this tutorial, be taught to:

  • Configure the syslog daemon
  • bear in mind regular amenities, priorities, and movements
  • Configure log rotation
  • take note rsyslog and syslog-ng
  • What's occurring inside your gadget?

    A Linux equipment has many subsystems and purposes working. you utilize gadget logging to collect statistics about your working device from the second it boots. every so often you just deserve to comprehend that every one is neatly. At different instances you use this statistics for auditing, debugging, figuring out when a disk or different useful resource is working out of capacity, and many other applications. which you can assemble log data on one gadget and forward it to a different equipment for processing. Log records may also be displayed on a terminal, such because the root consumer's terminal, but extra regularly it is saved in info, or forwarded over sockets to a log server. needless to say, logging is enormously configurable.

    The natural syslog facility and its syslogd daemon supply this logging. nowadays, syslog has been supplemented via different logging amenities such as rsyslog, syslog-ng, and the systemd journal subsystem. I introduce you to those amenities in this tutorial.

    This tutorial helps you prepare for goal 108.2 in subject 108 of the Linux Server expert (LPIC-1) examination 102. The purpose has a weight of 3.


    To get probably the most from the tutorials during this collection, you need a fundamental knowledge of Linux and a working Linux system on which which you can practice the instructions lined during this tutorial. you should definitely be time-honored with GNU and UNIX instructions. now and again distinctive types of a program structure output in another way, so your outcomes could now not all the time seem exactly just like the listings proven right here.

    during this tutorial, i use Slackware 42.2 for syslogd examples, CentOS 7 for rsyslogd examples, and Fedora 26 for systemd-journalctl and syslog-ng examples.

    usual syslog and the syslogd daemon

    The normal syslog system logging facility on a Linux system gives gadget logging and kernel message trapping. you could log facts on your native system or send it to a remote device. Use the /and so forth/syslog.conf configuration file to finely handle the stage of logging. Logging is carried out by the syslogd daemon, which consistently receives enter through the /dev/log socket, as proven in listing 1.

    listing 1. /dev/log is a socket [ian@attic4-sl42 ~]$ # Slackware 42.2 [ian@attic4-sl42 ~]$ /bin/ls -l /dev/log srw-rw-rw- 1 root root 0 Nov 19 sixteen:35 /dev/log

    For native logging, the leading file is always /var/log/messages, but many other data are used in most installations, usually discovered within the /var/log directory or a subdirectory of it. that you would be able to customize these radically. as an instance, you may want a separate log for messages from the mail device.

    The syslog.conf configuration file

    The syslog.conf file is the main configuration file for the syslogd daemon. Entries in syslog.conf specify logging suggestions. every rule has a selector box and an motion container, which are separated via one or more spaces or tabs. The selector container identifies the facility and the priorities that the rule applies to, and the action box identifies the logging motion for the ability and priorities.

    The defined facilities are auth (or safety), authpriv, cron, daemon, ftp, kern, lpr, mail, mark, news, syslog, user, uucp, and local0 via local7. The key phrase auth may still be used as an alternative of protection, and the keyword mark is for inner use.

    The priorities (in ascending order of severity) are:

  • debug
  • info
  • be aware
  • warning (or warn)
  • err (or error)
  • crit
  • alert
  • emerg (or panic)
  • The parenthesized key phrases (warn, error, and panic) at the moment are deprecated.

    The default habits is to take action for the targeted level and for all higher tiers, even though it is possible to restrict logging to particular degrees. each and every selector carries a facility and a precedence separated with the aid of a length (dot). numerous amenities for a given motion may also be special via isolating them with a comma. distinct facility/priority pairs for a given motion may also be distinctive by using setting apart them with a semicolon. list 2 shows an instance of a simple syslog.conf file.

    listing 2. illustration syslog.conf # Log anything 'warn' or larger. # Exclude authpriv, cron, mail, and news. These are logged elsewhere. # do not log deepest authentication messages! *.warn;\ authpriv.none;cron.none;mail.none;information.none -/var/log/syslog # The authpriv file has restrained access. authpriv.* /var/log/comfy # Log all the mail messages in a single location. mail.* -/var/log/maillog # Log cron stuff cron.* /var/log/cron # everyone receives emergency messages *.emerg * # store information blunders of stage crit and higher in a unique file. uucp,information.crit /var/log/spooler


  • As with many configuration files, lines starting with # and clean strains are left out.
  • An * may well be used to confer with all facilities or all priorities.
  • The particular precedence keyword none shows that no logging for this facility should still be achieved with this action.
  • The hyphen before a file identify (such as -/var/log/maillog, in this illustration) shows that the log file should not be synchronized after every write. You may lose suggestions after a system crash, however you might benefit performance by means of doing this.
  • The movements are generically known as "logfiles," although they wouldn't have to be precise info. desk 1 describe the feasible logfiles.

    desk 1. movements in syslog.conf motion aim regular dossierSpecify the entire pathname, starting with a slash (/). Prefix it with a hyphen (-) to miss syncing the file after every log entry. This may cause information loss if a crash happens, but may also enrich performance. Named pipes Use a first-in first-out (FIFO) or named pipe as a destination for log messages by including a pipe symbol (|) before the file name. You should create the FIFO the usage of the mkfifo command before starting (or restarting) syslogd. FIFOs are once in a while used for debugging. Terminal or console send log messages to a terminal similar to /dev/console. far off computer ahead messages to yet another host by putting an at (@) signal before the hostname. observe that messages don't seem to be forwarded from the receiving host. list of clients Use a comma-separated checklist of clients to receive messages (if the user is logged in). the foundation person is generally covered right here. everyone logged on Specify an asterisk (*) to have everybody logged on notified using the wall command.

    Prefix a precedence with ! to point out that the action should still no longer practice to this degree and higher. in a similar way prefix a precedence with = to point out that the rule of thumb applies most effective to this stage or with != to indicate that the rule applies to all apart from this level. record 3 indicates some examples, and the man page for syslog.conf has many greater examples.

    checklist three. extra syslog.conf examples # Kernel messages are first, stored in the kernel # file, vital messages and higher ones also go # to another host and to the console # kern.* /var/adm/kernel kern.crit @log-server kern.crit /dev/console kern.information;kern.!err /var/adm/kernel-data # store all mail messages apart from data priority in /var/log/mail. mail.*;mail.!=information /var/log/mail

    The syslogd command starts the syslogd daemon. It has a numver of alternate options, together with -f to specify a special configuration file, and -a for additional sockets to take heed to. The daemon responds to a few alerts, including SIGHUP which reasons it to reinitialize. See the man or information pages for more details on operating and interacting with the syslogd daemon.

    list four suggests one of the vital messages that might be logged to /var/log/messages using syslogd configuration parameters like these of list 2.

    list 4. example of messages logged in /var/log/messages root@attic4-sl42:~# tail -n 20 /var/log/messages Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274747] usb 1-1.1: New USB equipment strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=three Nov 19 21:39:57 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274751] usb 1-1.1: Product: USB DISK 2.0 Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274755] usb 1-1.1: brand: Nov 19 21:39:57 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274759] usb 1-1.1: SerialNumber: 070B53DF11FC0170 Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.275036] usb-storage 1-1.1:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.275801] scsi host12: usb-storage 1-1.1:1.0 Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus 1, machine 12: "/sys/instruments/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.2/usb1/1-1/1-1.1" Nov 19 21:39:57 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: 1, equipment: 12 turned into not an MTP equipment Nov 19 21:39:58 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1404.301570] scsi 12:0:0:0: Direct-entry USB DISK 2.0 PMAP PQ: 0 ANSI: four Nov 19 21:39:59 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.651626] sd 12:0:0:0: [sdd] 30299520 512-byte logical blocks: (15.5 GB/14.4 GiB) Nov 19 21:39:fifty nine attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.652236] sd 12:0:0:0: [sdd] Write give protection to is off Nov 19 21:40:00 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.678810] sdd: sdd1 Nov 19 21:forty:00 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.683911] sd 12:0:0:0: [sdd] connected SCSI removable disk Nov 19 21:42:36 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1562.844117] usb 1-1.1: reset high-velocity USB equipment number 12 using ehci-pci Nov 19 21:forty two:37 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.044142] usb 1-1.1: reset high-pace USB equipment number 12 using ehci-pci Nov 19 21:forty two:37 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.245138] usb 1-1.1: reset high-speed USB gadget quantity 12 the use of ehci-pci Nov 19 21:forty two:37 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.619154] usb 1-1.1: reset excessive-speed USB gadget number 12 the usage of ehci-pci Nov 19 21:42:38 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.919798] usb 1-1.1: USB disconnect, device quantity 12 Nov 19 21:forty two:38 attic4-sl42 kernel: <27>[ 1563.950967] udevd[3540]: inotify_add_watch(6, /dev/sdd, 10) failed: No such file or directory Nov 19 21:56:48 attic4-sl42 -- MARK -- The kernel log daemon - klogd

    In list three you saw some the way to configure kernel message logging. but how do boot-time kernel messages get logged earlier than a file system is even hooked up? The kernel outlets messages in a ring buffer in memory. The klogd daemon procedures these messages without delay to a console, or a file similar to /var/log/dmesg, or in the course of the syslog facility.

    observe that the example in listing 2 logs all messages at warning degree or above in /var/log/syslog. In particular, this includes kernel messages.

    As with the syslogd command, the klogd command has a couple of options. See the man or data pages for details. There is not any configuration file for klogd.

    you could additionally display messages from the kernel ring buffer the use of the dmesg command. The command also has alternate options to interact with the ring buffer, as an instance to study and clear messages.

    Rotate and archive log data

    With the volume of logging it's possible, you should be in a position to control the measurement of log info. this is completed using the logrotate command, which is continually run as a cron job. (See our tutorial, Automate gadget administration tasks via scheduling jobs, for extra advice on cron jobs).

    The customary concept at the back of the logrotate command is that log data are periodically backed up and a brand new log is all started. several generations of log are kept, and when a log a while to the final technology, it may be archived. as an example, it should be would becould very well be mailed to an archival person.

    Use the /and many others/logrotate.conf configuration file to specify how your log rotating and archiving should still ensue. which you could specify different frequencies, reminiscent of daily, weekly, or monthly, for diverse log data, and you'll manage the number of generations to hold and when or even if to mail copies to an archival person. list 5 indicates a sample /etc/logrotate.conf file.

    list 5. sample /etc/logrotate.conf # /etc/logrotate.conf # # logrotate is designed to ease administration of programs that generate giant # numbers of log information. It permits automated rotation, compression, removing, and # mailing of log information. every log file can be dealt with every day, weekly, monthly, or # when it grows too massive. # # logrotate is perpetually run each day from root's crontab. # # For greater details, see "man logrotate". # rotate log info weekly: weekly # retain four weeks worth of backlogs: rotate 4 # create new (empty) log data after rotating historic ones: create # uncomment if you wish to use the date as a suffix of the rotated file #dateext # uncomment this in case you want your log information compressed: #compress # some programs set up log rotation counsel in this directory: include /etc/logrotate.d # Rotate /var/log/wtmp: /var/log/wtmp missingok monthly create 0664 root utmp minsize 1M rotate 1 # Rotate /var/log/btmp: /var/log/btmp missingok month-to-month create 0600 root root rotate 1 # notice that /var/log/lastlog isn't rotated. this is intentional, and it can # now not be. The lastlog file is a database, and is also a sparse file that takes # up a whole lot much less space on the drive than it appears. # device-certain logs could be also be configured beneath:

    The logrotate.conf file has global alternatives initially. These are the default alternatives if nothing more selected is specific elsewhere. during this example, log information are rotated weekly, and 4 weeks price of backups are saved. as soon as a log file is circled, a new one is instantly created in place of the historical one. be aware that the logrotate.conf file may encompass specifications from other information. right here, the entire data in /etc/logrotate.d are blanketed.

    This instance additionally comprises selected suggestions for /var/log/wtmp and /var/log/btmp, which can be circled month-to-month. No error message is issued if the information are missing. a new file is created, and only one backup is maintained. access to those info is additionally confined with the aid of environment permissions.

    notice: The information /var/log/wtmp and /var/log/btmp listing successful and unsuccessful login makes an attempt, respectively. not like most log info, these aren't clear text info. You may also assess them the use of the remaining or lastb instructions. See the person pages for these commands for details.

    in this instance, when a backup reaches the remaining technology, it is deleted as a result of there is not any specification of what else to do with it.

    which you could lower back up log info after they reach a specific measurement. that you would be able to additionally script commands to run before or after the backup operation. list 6 suggests a greater complex example.

    checklist 6. an additional logrotate configuration instance /var/log/messages rotate 5 mail logsave@log-server size 100k postrotate /usr/bin/killall -HUP syslogd endscript

    In checklist 6, /var/log/messages is turned around after it reaches 100 KB in size. 5 backup information are maintained, and when the oldest backup a while out, it's mailed to logsave@log-server. The postrotate introduces a script that restarts the syslogd daemon after the rotation is comprehensive, by way of sending it the HUP sign. The endscript statement is required to terminate the script and is additionally required if a prerotate script is current. See the logrotate man page for more complete tips.

    As with many such configuration info, some programs offered further configuration, continually in the directory and so forth/logrotate.d. record 7 suggests the info on my Slackware system.

    listing 7. Configuration info for logrotate root@attic4-sl42:~# ls /and so on/logrot* /and so forth/logrotate.conf /and so on/logrotate.d: consolekit mcelog mysql.orig ulogd wpa_supplicant httpd mysql syslog vsftpd root@attic4-sl42:~# cat /and so on/logrotate.d/httpd /var/log/httpd/*_log rotate 10 notifempty missingok size=5M compress delaycompress sharedscripts postrotate /and so forth/rc.d/rc.httpd restart endscript Scan log files for wonderful recreation

    Log file entries are constantly time stamped and comprise the hostname of the reporting system, along with the system identify. list eight indicates a number of traces from /var/log/messages, containing entries from a couple of courses.

    record eight. sample log file entries Nov 19 15:forty eight:31 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 7.407406] EXT4-fs (sda6): re-set up. Opts: (null) Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus three, device three: "/sys/gadgets/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/three-2/3-2.1" Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: three, machine: three become not an MTP machine Nov 19 15:forty eight:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus three, device four: "/sys/contraptions/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/3-2/three-2.four" Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: 3, gadget: four was now not an MTP device Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus 1, device 4: "/sys/gadgets/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.2/usb1/1-1/1-1.1" Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: 1, equipment: 4 changed into no longer an MTP machine Nov 19 15:48:36 attic4-sl42 root: /and so forth/rc.d/rc.inet1: /sbin/ifconfig lo Nov 19 15:48:36 attic4-sl42 root: /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1: /sbin/route add -net netmask lo Nov 19 15:forty eight:36 attic4-sl42 root: /and so forth/rc.d/rc.inet1: /sbin/dhcpcd -t 10 eth0 Nov 19 15:forty eight:36 attic4-sl42 dhcpcd[1112]: eth0: including address fe80::4c2a:3f48:e0f7:cc90 Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 sshd[1255]: Server listening on port 22. Nov 19 15:48:41 attic4-sl42 sshd[1255]: Server listening on :: port 22. Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1262]: ntpd 4.2.8p8@1.3265-o Fri Jun 3 23:08: 22 UTC 2016 (1): startingNov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1262]: Command line: /usr/sbin/ntpd -g -p /var /run/ntpd.pid Nov 19 15:48:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: proto: precision = 0.230 usec (-22) Nov 19 15:48:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: hear and drop on 0 v6wildcard [::]:12 three Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: pay attention and drop on 1 v4wildcard Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: pay attention normally on 2 lo Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: listen continuously on 3 eth0 Nov 19 15:48:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: pay attention constantly on four lo [::1]:123 Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: did not init interface for tackle fe80::8616:f9ff:fe04:7a2ap.c2 Nov 19 15:48:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: Listening on routing socket on fd #21 for interface updates Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty one attic4-sl42 acpid: starting up with netlink and the enter layer Nov 19 15:48:41 attic4-sl42 acpid: 1 rule loaded Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 acpid: expecting activities: event logging is off Nov 19 15:forty eight:42 attic4-sl42 dbus[1226]: [system] Activating provider name='org.freedesktop.PolicyKit1' (the usage of servicehelper) Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty two attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: did not init interface for address fe80::8616:f9ff:fe04:7a2a%2

    The last line of checklist 8 suggests a failure from the network Time Protocol daemon (ntpd). during this case, it didn't initialize an IP V6 interface because this system uses handiest IP V4 connections.

    that you would be able to scan log info using a pager, such as much less, or search for particular entries (equivalent to ntpd messages from host attic4-sl42) the use of grep as shown in checklist 9.

    record 9. Scanning log info root@attic4-sl42:~# grep "attic4-sl42 ntpd" /var/log/messages | tail -9Nov 19 21:17:12 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1131]: Command line: /usr/sbin/ntpd -g -p /var/run/ntpd.pid Nov 19 21:17:12 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: proto: precision = 0.220 usec (-22) Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: pay attention and drop on 0 v6wildcard [::]:123 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: pay attention and drop on 1 v4wildcard Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: listen invariably on 2 lo Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: listen normally on three eth0 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: pay attention at all times on 4 lo [::1]:123 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: hear always on 5 eth0 [fe80::8616:f9ff:fe04:7a2a%2]:123 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: Listening on routing socket on fd #22 for interface updates display screen log data

    on occasion you may wish to video display log information for routine. for instance, you might be making an attempt to capture an sometimes happening event on the time it happens. In such a case, which you could use the tail command with the -f alternative to observe the log file. listing 10 suggests an illustration.

    list 10. Following log file updates root@attic4-sl42:~# tail -n 1 -f /var/log/messages Nov 20 09:24:58 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43705.563240] sd 15:0:0:0: [sdd] connected SCSI detachable disk Nov 20 09:26:23 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43790.820125] usb three-2.4: USB disconnect, equipment number 5Nov 20 09:27:13 attic4-sl42 sshd[6059]: approved password for ian from 192.168.1.forty port 58184 ssh2 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.890670] usb three-2.4: new low-speed USB gadget number 6 the usage of ohci-pci Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989492] usb 3-2.four: New USB gadget discovered, idVendor=046d, idProduct=c50e Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989501] usb three-2.four: New USB machine strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=0 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989506] usb three-2.4: Product: USB Receiver Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989509] usb three-2.four: brand: Logitech Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43956.003175] input: Logitech USB Receiver as /instruments/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/three-2/three-2.4/three-2.four:1.0/0003:046D:C50E.0004/input/input19 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43956.054049] hid-regular 0003:046D:C50E.0004: enter,hidraw1: USB HID v1.11 Mouse [Logitech USB Receiver] on usb-0000:00:12.0-2.4/input0 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus three, machine 6: "/sys/gadgets/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/three-2/three-2.four" Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: three, gadget: 6 become not an MTP equipment track down issues stated in log info

    in the event you find problems in log files, be aware the time, the host name, and the process that generated the problem. If the message identifies the problem especially satisfactory for you to unravel it, you're accomplished. If not, you may should replace syslog.conf to specify that greater messages be logged for the acceptable facility. for example, you could deserve to exhibit informational messages in its place of warning messages or even debug-stage messages. Your software might also have extra amenities that you should use.

    eventually, in case you should put marks in the log file to assist you comprehend what messages had been logged at what stage of your debugging recreation, that you may use the logger command from a terminal window or shell script to send a message of your choice to the syslogd daemon for logging based on the suggestions in syslog.conf.

    the usage of rsyslogd

    Rsyslog is the self-described rocket-fast system for log processing. it's upwards appropriate from syslog within the experience that it will possibly procedure configurations suitable with syslog and additionally handle the syslog name to log tips. It additionally offers several enhancements that aren't backwards suitable. In particular, it supports further logging protocols, and it could actually log to databases, similar to MySQL or PostgreSQL, as well as info. that you would be able to filter any a part of a syslog message and can completely configure the output format.

    The average man and information pages give basic guidance about rsyslog. despite the fact, there's significantly more documentation supplied in the HTML format in the doc directory of your system. You could need to installation the rsyslog-doc equipment if it turned into no longer put in to your system. the basis of the HTML tree is at /usr/share/doc/rsyslog-8.24.0/html/index.html. The region may additionally vary for your device.

    The rsyslog program runs as a daemon, akin to syslogd. The configuration file defaults to rsyslog.conf.

    listing eleven. An rsyslog.conf configuration file [ian@attic4-ce7 ~]$ cat /etc/rsyslog.conf # rsyslog configuration file # For greater guidance see /usr/share/doc/rsyslog-*/rsyslog_conf.html # if you journey problems, see http://www.rsyslog.com/doc/troubleshoot.html #### MODULES #### # The imjournal module bellow is now used as a message source in its place of imuxsock. $ModLoad imuxsock # gives help for local gadget logging (e.g. via logger command) $ModLoad imjournal # provides entry to the systemd journal #$ModLoad imklog # reads kernel messages (the same are examine from journald) #$ModLoad immark # offers --MARK-- message capacity # offers UDP syslog reception #$ModLoad imudp #$UDPServerRun 514 # offers TCP syslog reception #$ModLoad imtcp #$InputTCPServerRun 514 #### world DIRECTIVES #### # the place to location auxiliary information $WorkDirectory /var/lib/rsyslog # Use default timestamp structure $ActionFileDefaultTemplate RSYSLOG_TraditionalFileFormat # File syncing potential is disabled with the aid of default. This characteristic is always no longer required, # now not positive and an severe efficiency hit #$ActionFileEnableSync on # include all config info in /and so forth/rsyslog.d/ $IncludeConfig /and so forth/rsyslog.d/*.conf # turn off message reception by the use of native log socket; # native messages are retrieved via imjournal now. $OmitLocalLogging on # File to save the place in the journal $IMJournalStateFile imjournal.state #### suggestions #### # Log all kernel messages to the console. # Logging plenty else clutters up the screen. #kern.* /dev/console # Log the rest (except mail) of level information or better. # don't log private authentication messages! *.information;mail.none;authpriv.none;cron.none /var/log/messages # The authpriv file has limited access. authpriv.* /var/log/cozy # Log all the mail messages in one region. mail.* -/var/log/maillog # Log cron stuff cron.* /var/log/cron # each person gets emergency messages *.emerg :omusrmsg:* # store information mistakes of degree crit and better in a special file. uucp,news.crit /var/log/spooler # keep boot messages also as well.log local7.* /var/log/boot.log # ### begin forwarding rule ### # The statement between the begin ... end outline a SINGLE forwarding # rule. They belong collectively, don't split them. in case you create varied # forwarding rules, reproduction the complete block! # faraway Logging (we use TCP for official beginning) # # An on-disk queue is created for this action. If the remote host is # down, messages are spooled to disk and sent when it is up once more. #$ActionQueueFileName fwdRule1 # entertaining identify prefix for spool information #$ActionQueueMaxDiskSpace 1g # 1gb house limit (use as much as possible) #$ActionQueueSaveOnShutdown on # store messages to disk on shutdown #$ActionQueueType LinkedList # run asynchronously #$ActionResumeRetryCount -1 # endless retries if host is down # far flung host is: identify/ip:port, e.g., port optional #*.* @@far flung-host:514 # ### end of the forwarding rule ###

    you're going to recognize customary syslog.conf entries within the core of the file, surrounded by way of additional things that the rsyslog facility understands. See the man or information pages or the HTML documentation for extra particulars.

    that you would be able to use logrotate with information created by rsyslogd, youngsters SQL databases may additionally require scripting or other tools. similarly, the logger command nonetheless works to area your personal mark within the log.

    the use of the systemd journal provider

    The systemd journal service examples during this section come from Fedora 26.

    The systemd-journald program is a device carrier daemon that collects and shops logging statistics. It creates and keeps structured, indexed journals in response to logging assistance it really is received from the standard syslog sources in addition to structured log messages using a local journal API.

    The average /dev/log socket is a link to /run/systemd/journal/dev-log as proven in record 12.

    listing 12. The dev/log and /run/systemd/journal/dev-log sockets [root@atticf26 ~]# ls -l /dev/log lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 28 Nov 20 23:43 /dev/log -> /run/systemd/journal/dev-log [root@atticf26 ~]# ls -l /run/systemd/journal/dev-log srw-rw-rw-. 1 root root 0 Nov 20 23:forty three /run/systemd/journal/dev-log

    The systemd-journald daemon listens on sockets and other file device entities, including /dev/kmsg, /dev/log, /run/systemd/journal/dev-log, /run/systemd/journal/socket, and /run/systemd/journal/stdout. it might probably additionally listen for audit activities using netlink, which transfers kernel counsel to user area using sockets.

    Most log data is textual, however binary information is allowed, theoretically as much as 2^sixty four-1 bytes in measurement. The journal outlets log facts in /run/log/journal/ by using default. The /run/ file device is volatile, so log information is misplaced when the device reboots. To make the data persistent, you create /var/log/journal/ and systemd-journald will then store the records there.

    As with different logging techniques, there is a configuration file. by means of default, it's /and so forth/systemd/journald.conf. Many options are compiled in through default, so many of the options in the configuration file are firstly commented out as proven in checklist 13. Uncomment these you want to change. As standard further configuration data may also be discovered in the journald.conf.d directory. programs should still installation their journal configuration guidance in /usr/lib/systemd/*.conf.d/.

    checklist 13. initial /and many others/systemd/journald.conf example # This file is a part of systemd. # # systemd is free application; which you can redistribute it and/or alter it # below the terms of the GNU Lesser regularly occurring Public License as published by using # the Free software basis; either version 2.1 of the License, or # (at your option) any later edition. # # Entries during this file demonstrate the collect time defaults. # that you may change settings by means of modifying this file. # Defaults can be restored via simply deleting this file. # # See journald.conf(5) for particulars. [Journal] #Storage=auto #Compress=sure #Seal=sure #SplitMode=uid #SyncIntervalSec=5m #RateLimitIntervalSec=30s #RateLimitBurst=one thousand #SystemMaxUse= #SystemKeepFree= #SystemMaxFileSize= #SystemMaxFiles=a hundred #RuntimeMaxUse= #RuntimeKeepFree= #RuntimeMaxFileSize= #RuntimeMaxFiles=a hundred #MaxRetentionSec= #MaxFileSec=1month #ForwardToSyslog=no #ForwardToKMsg=no #ForwardToConsole=no #ForwardToWall=yes #TTYPath=/dev/console #MaxLevelStore=debug #MaxLevelSyslog=debug #MaxLevelKMsg=notice #MaxLevelConsole=info #MaxLevelWall=emerg

    Use the person or info pages for journald.conf to gain knowledge of greater in regards to the configuration settings which are supported.

    Use the journalctl command to monitor logged suggestions. checklist 14 shows how to display the final 10 lines of logged information after which use the -f alternative to comply with, or constantly monitor, new strains as they are introduced. Use the --rotate choice to rotate journal files.

    record 14. the usage of journalctl to reveal or comply with log messages [root@atticf26 ~]# journalctl -n 10 -f -- Logs begin at Mon 2007-07-09 22:14:00 EDT. -- Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] Activating by the use of systemd: carrier identify='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' unit='dbus-org.freedesktop.nm-dispatcher.carrier' requested by way of ':1.9' (uid=0 pid=650 comm="/usr/sbin/NetworkManager --no-daemon " label="system_u:system_r:NetworkManager_t:s0") Nov 21 10:24:forty seven atticf26 systemd[1]: beginning network manager Script Dispatcher provider... Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_START pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] correctly activated carrier 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 systemd[1]: all started community manager Script Dispatcher service. Nov 21 10:24:forty seven atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7121]: req:1 'connectivity-change': new request (5 scripts) Nov 21 10:24:forty seven atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7121]: req:1 'connectivity-exchange': delivery working ordered scripts... Nov 21 10:24:48 atticf26 gnome-utility-carrier.laptop[4641]: 15:24:48:0034 Gs did not call gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: do not know the way to install app in state queued Nov 21 10:24:fifty two atticf26 dhclient[7110]: DHCPDISCOVER on enp4s0 to port 67 interval 15 (xid=0x36565033) Nov 21 10:24:fifty seven atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_STOP pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:25:07 atticf26 dhclient[7110]: DHCPDISCOVER on enp4s0 to port sixty seven interval 14 (xid=0x36565033) Nov 21 10:25:21 atticf26 dhclient[7110]: DHCPDISCOVER on enp4s0 to port 67 interval 17 (xid=0x36565033) Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <warn> [1511277922.0280] dhcp4 (enp4s0): request timed out Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <information> [1511277922.0286] dhcp4 (enp4s0): state changed unknown -> timeout Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277922.0380] dhcp4 (enp4s0): canceled DHCP transaction, DHCP client pid 7110 Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <data> [1511277922.0381] dhcp4 (enp4s0): state changed timeout -> performed Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <information> [1511277922.0386] equipment (enp4s0): state alternate: ip-config -> failed (rationale 'ip-config-unavailable', inner state 'managed') Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <warn> [1511277922.0393] equipment (enp4s0): Activation: failed for connection 'enp3s0' Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277922.0401] machine (enp4s0): state exchange: failed -> disconnected (intent 'none', inside state 'managed') ... Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <information> [1511277997.7805] gadget (enp4s0): state trade: ip-config -> deactivating (reason 'user-requested', inner state 'managed') Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <data> [1511277997.7811] audit: op="machine-disconnect" interface="enp4s0" ifindex=three pid=7167 uid=1000 influence="success" Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <information> [1511277997.7817] equipment (enp4s0): state alternate: deactivating -> disconnected (purpose 'person-requested', interior state 'managed') Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 gnome-application-service.laptop[4641]: 15:26:37:0783 Gs failed to name gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: do not know a way to deploy app in state queued Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 avahi-daemon[602]: Withdrawing tackle listing for fe80::3fd7:76aa:e99d:da5d on enp4s0. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 avahi-daemon[602]: Leaving mDNS multicast community on interface enp4s0.IPv6 with handle fe80::3fd7:76aa:e99d:da5d. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 avahi-daemon[602]: Interface enp4s0.IPv6 not significant for mDNS. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 gnome-software-provider.computing device[4641]: 15:26:37:0787 Gs failed to name gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: do not know a way to set up app in state queued Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <data> [1511277997.7993] dhcp4 (enp4s0): canceled DHCP transaction, DHCP customer pid 7179 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277997.7993] dhcp4 (enp4s0): state modified unknown -> accomplished Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=filter family unit=2 entries=ninety nine Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=nat family=2 entries=59 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=mangle family=2 entries=forty two Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=raw family unit=2 entries=30 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] Activating by way of systemd: provider identify='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' unit='dbus-org.freedesktop.nm-dispatcher.provider' requested by ':1.9' (uid=0 pid=650 comm="/usr/sbin/NetworkManager --no-daemon " label="system_u:system_r:NetworkManager_t:s0") Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 systemd[1]: beginning network supervisor Script Dispatcher service... Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=filter household=10 entries=ninety Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=nat household=10 entries=54 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=mangle family=10 entries=41 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=uncooked family=10 entries=31 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] successfully activated service 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_START pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7223]: req:1 'down' [enp4s0]: new request (5 scripts) Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 systemd[1]: begun community manager Script Dispatcher service. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7223]: req:1 'down' [enp4s0]: birth working ordered scripts... Nov 21 10:26:38 atticf26 gnome-software-provider.computer[4641]: 15:26:38:0787 Gs did not call gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: have no idea how to install app in state queued Nov 21 10:26:forty eight atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_STOP pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:28:35 atticf26 cupsd[4544]: REQUEST localhost - - "put up / HTTP/1.1" 200 182 Renew-Subscription successful-ok

    Use the systemctl command to screen information about, interact with, or manage the daemon and linked contraptions. listing 15 suggests an example.

    listing 15. the use of the systemctl command [root@atticf26 ~]# systemctl list-instruments "*journal*" --no-pager UNIT LOAD active SUB DESCRIPTION abrt-journal-core.provider loaded active running Creates ABRT issues fro systemd-journal-flush.carrier loaded energetic exited Flush Journal to Persiste systemd-journald.service loaded lively operating Journal provider systemd-journald-audit.socket loaded active running Journal Audit Socket systemd-journald-dev-log.socket loaded energetic operating Journal Socket (/dev/log) systemd-journald.socket loaded energetic running Journal Socket LOAD = displays whether the unit definition was accurately loaded. lively = The high-stage unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB. SUB = The low-stage unit activation state, values rely on unit classification. 6 loaded instruments listed. move --all to peer loaded but inactive contraptions, too. To show all put in unit files use 'systemctl listing-unit-information'. the usage of syslog-ng

    Syslog-ng describes itself as "an greater log daemon, supporting a wide array of input and output strategies: syslog, unstructured text, queueing, SQL & NoSQL." It helps legacy and stronger syslog protocols and provides guide for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and journald message formats. Syslog-ng supports wide capabilities to filter enter and layout output.

    once put in, there is basic tips in the man and information pages. besides the fact that children, you will probably want to use "The syslog-ng Open source edition Administrator book", which is obtainable in each HTML and PDF formats. (See connected themes).

    The default configuration file is /and so forth/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf. An illustration is proven in list sixteen. additional configuration data may also be found in the /etc/syslog-ng/conf.d listing.

    record sixteen. illustration of syslog-ng.conf @edition:three.9 @consist of "scl.conf" # syslog-ng configuration file. # # This should still behave fairly an awful lot just like the usual syslog on RedHat. but # it may well be configured plenty smarter. # # See syslog-ng(8) and syslog-ng.conf(5) for more tips. # # word: it also sources additional configuration files (*.conf) # found in /and so forth/syslog-ng/conf.d/ alternatives flush_lines (0); time_reopen (10); log_fifo_size (1000); chain_hostnames (off); use_dns (no); use_fqdn (no); create_dirs (no); keep_hostname (sure); ; source s_sys gadget(); interior(); # udp(ip( port(514)); ; vacation spot d_cons file("/dev/console"); ; vacation spot d_mesg file("/var/log/messages"); ; destination d_auth file("/var/log/comfortable"); ; vacation spot d_mail file("/var/log/maillog" flush_lines(10)); ; vacation spot d_spol file("/var/log/spooler"); ; vacation spot d_boot file("/var/log/boot.log"); ; destination d_cron file("/var/log/cron"); ; destination d_kern file("/var/log/kern"); ; vacation spot d_mlal usertty("*"); ; filter f_kernel facility(kern); ; filter f_default degree(information..emerg) and now not (facility(mail) or facility(authpriv) or facility(cron)); ; filter f_auth facility(authpriv); ; filter f_mail facility(mail); ; filter f_emergency level(emerg); ; filter f_news facility(uucp) or (facility(information) and level(crit..emerg)); ; filter f_boot facility(local7); ; filter f_cron facility(cron); ; #log source(s_sys); filter(f_kernel); destination(d_cons); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_kernel); vacation spot(d_kern); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_default); vacation spot(d_mesg); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_auth); vacation spot(d_auth); ; log source(s_sys); filter(f_mail); vacation spot(d_mail); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_emergency); destination(d_mlal); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_news); vacation spot(d_spol); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_boot); vacation spot(d_boot); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_cron); destination(d_cron); ; # supply additional configuration info (.conf extension handiest) @include "/and so forth/syslog-ng/conf.d/*.conf" # vim:ft=syslog-ng:ai:si:ts=4:sw=4:et:

    You generally don't deserve to run each the systemd journal and syslog-ng journalling. in case you do want to use each, you'll deserve to make some configuration alterations to both and then restart both. Search the net for existing guidelines on a way to do this.

    This concludes your introduction to logging amenities on Linux.

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    LPI checks | killexams.com real questions with brain dumps

    Linux Holdings organises Mass Linux knowledgeable Institute experience at LinuxWorld. by way of Alan McKinnon, practicing Director, Linux Holdings

    "I`m at it once again" says Alan McKinnon, Director of coaching and practicing development at Linux Holdings. "The final LPI [Linux Professional Institute] mass exam held in February became a great success. we are having a different one at the Linux World expo on the 18th can also!"

    The aim of these mass LPI tests is to boost Linux technical capabilities in South Africa. Linux Holdings believes that the LPI certification is the most effective Linux certification obtainable, and all Linux Holdings equipment administration lessons are aligned across the LPI certification tests. absolutely supplier-neutral, LPI tests are not in accordance with any certain direction and are simplest worried with trying out the usual competence of the candidate and no different element. presently, LPI offers two levels of certification: LPIC-1 (Junior stage Administration) and LPIC-2 (Intermediate stage Administration). each and every stage contains two assessments.

    McKinnon became the driving drive in the back of the 25 February 2005 LPI mass exam held in Johannesburg. 182 people wrote a total of 278 exams, all in one day. This resulted in 37 men and women reaching full LPIC-1 certification and one more three achieved the more superior LPIC-2.

    McKinnon provides, "LinuxWorld is the premier Linux expo world-large. i will be able to`t consider of a much better experience to host a comply with up adventure. The goal is two-fold: to supply the 37 new LPIC-1 graduates an opportunity to jot down the LPIC-2 checks, and to offer the 2d exam to the numerous americans who wrote and handed one examination in February. we hope to achieve a different 35 LPIC-1 and 20 LPIC-2 graduates at this event. The 2d goal is to exhibit loud and clear that skilled, top-quality Linux guide in South Africa is a reality."

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    EMAS Offshore Switches Gears from Leased FPSO to EPC enterprise | killexams.com real questions with brain dumps

    by using  Chen Hui Hui


    Rigzone Contributor


    Thursday, October 30, 2014

    EMAS Offshore adjustments tack in its floating production company by targeting engineering, procurement and construction contracts instead of specializing in leasing offers.

    EMAS Offshore Ltd. (EOL), the newly consolidated subsidiary of Singapore-primarily based Ezra Holdings Ltd., is switching gears on its floating production enterprise from chasing after multi-year leases to engineering, procurement and building contracts, neighborhood Chief government Lionel Lee pointed out at the full-year effects briefing held over the weekend.

    EOL is the enlarged subsidiary during which Ezra holds over 75 p.c interest, comprising the then Oslo-listed EMAS Offshore development and construction and offshore guide features provider, EMAS Marine.

    Lionel Lee, CEO of Ezra Holdings

    modified Priorities for Floating creation company

    In December 2012, EOC Ltd. (EOCL) entered into an asset swap with its Malaysian affiliate, Perisai Petroleum Teknologi Bhd, as a part of a circulation to divest its stake within the Lewek Arunothai floating construction, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessel, consequently renamed Perisai Kamelia. The FPSO has been below a three-plus-three 12 months term charter with Hess Exploration and production Malaysia B.V. in the North Malaya basin off Peninsular Malaysia given that November 2013.

    When the consolidation of EOC and EMAS Marine became mooted in July, EOL changed into the 49 p.c owner of Perisai Kamelia FPSO and had a forty two p.c stake in the Lewek Emas FPSO, which is below contract with UK independent Premier Oil Vietnam.

    The FPSO enterprise, Lee cited, can be consolidated under protection and administration of offshore systems and EOL’s new focus could be on the provision of engineering, procurement and installing services.

    EOL will now not pursue leased FPSOs any more – that means it will not be owning any additional FPSOs – however as an alternative the now Oslo- and Singapore-listed subsidiary of Ezra Holdings is eyeing engineering, procurement and construction contracts on present from floating creation initiatives offshore Malaysia and Indonesia, Lee published.

    The market outlook for FPSOs remains “first rate” however “a lot of vessels may be owned via box operators,” he defined.

    Going after leased FPSOs exposes the Singapore-based contracting group to too much capital possibility, the Ezra CEO delivered.

    container operators have taken to shortening the mounted term charters from between eight and 12 years to just six years, neighborhood Chief monetary Officer Eugene Cheng additional elaborated.

    Banks “wish to amortize loan over six years” of the fastened time period charter with out taking into account the upside for contract extensions, which translates to elevated residual asset cost dangers for the FPSO contractors, in response to Cheng.

    Subsidiary Triyards present Fabrication support

    EOL can seem to be to fabrication guide from Ezra’s 60.9 percent-owned yard subsidiary, Triyards Holdings Ltd., for executing its EPC contracts. thus far, the yard has delivered a turret for an FPSO installing, Lee talked about, adding that it will probably probably carry a turret every other 12 months.

    Caption: Triyards’ facility in Vung Tau, Vietnam supply: Ezra Holdings

    Triyards at the moment owns amenities in Singapore, Vietnam and Houston. The yard facility in Vung Tau, Vietnam – the largest of the enterprise’s three shipyards – has been strengthened to carry offshore buildings of up to 10,000 lots.

    The pull-through from Ezra’s other company instruments youngsters, account for below 20 % of Triyards’ company, Cheng commented.

    Newbuild raise-boat orders contain the bulk of Triyards’ order book in the meanwhile. whereas the yard operator is full up to 2017, the business continues to be looking to sign more elevate-boat orders, Lee indicated.

    All miraculous newbuild orders, other than a one-plus-one carry-boat contract from Singapore-based mostly Swissco Holdings Ltd., are from U.S. customers.

    To increase its client base, Ezra’s yard subsidiary is conserving in-depth discussions with abilities consumers from Vietnam and Abu Dhabi, Lee talked about, including that the contracts below discussion include a possible newbuild order for a jackup to be built to its in-condominium developed excessive power high temperature TDU-400 design.

    nevertheless, Ezra has no intention to directly personal or operate drilling rigs, even if its 25 percent-owned Malaysian affiliate Perisai Petroleum has invested in the building of jackup drilling contraptions.

    Perisai Petroleum is “happy with” the three jackups on its fleet, and never “seeking to expand a lot more”, Lee remarked youngsters he hinted the Malaysian affiliate may eye opportunistic asset acquisitions.

    The jackup Perisai Pacific one zero one (four hundred’ ILC) has received a three-year contract from Malaysia’s country wide oil business Petronas Nasional Bhd’s upstream unit Petronas Carigali in may, forward of its start from Singapore-based mostly PPL Shipyard. Two other jackups, Perisai Pacific 102 (400’ ILC) and Perisai Pacific 103 (four hundred’ ILC), additionally being built at PPL are as a result of be delivered in mid-2015 and 2016, respectively. 

    There are presently about two dozen rigs being built on a speculative basis for resale goal or on order from new start-ups. every one of these jackups are under building in China.

    Ezra’s offshore help features enterprise division, which become consolidated into EOL and as a result went for a secondary record on the Singapore stock change prior this month, accounted for 17 p.c of the neighborhood’s $1.49 billion salary for financial year 2014.

    EMAS AMC, Ezra’s subsea division, money owed for 70 % of the group’s profits, whereas the final 13 percent comes from Triyards.

    Ezra netted an adjusted earnings after tax of $41.2 million for monetary year 2014, a pointy turnaround from a $26.6 million loss last yr. The development arose mainly from a 32 percent upward thrust in EMAS AMC’s operating income to over $1 billion.

    Generated by means of readers, the comments protected herein don't mirror the views and opinions of Rigzone. All comments are discipline to editorial overview. Off-theme, inappropriate or insulting comments might be eliminated.

    Oklahoma State soccer: bargain tickets for OSU-Florida State online game available on information superhighway | killexams.com real questions with brain dumps

    When agents need to sell off products at a quicker rate, they can are seeking for the features of community-discount paying for websites that scale down costs to entice greater buyers.

    And after a brief web search, it seems that’s what the NFL is trying to do in order to promote greater tickets for Oklahoma State’s Aug. 30 season-opener towards Florida State at AT&T Stadium in Arlington.

    The web site livingsocial.com is providing discounted tickets to the game — a 17 % rate reductions, to be actual. One continually $seventy five ticket for a corner four hundred-degree seat goes for $60. a different usually $102 four hundred-degree sideline ticket is being provided at $eighty five.

    earlier than we analyze why here is going on, right here’s a brief analyze OSU’s function in selling tickets for the opener at a impartial site.

    round January and February, the college’s ticket workplace turned into contractually obligated to promote a certain amount of tickets for the video game, OSU ticket manager Craig Bauman noted. anything else left over became to be despatched returned to the Dallas Cowboys organization by way of may also 1, and it might take over the earnings from there.

    Bauman spoke of his workplace met that mark, plus a couple of thousand greater, to total around eight,000 tickets bought.

    “With the timeframe that we had, I’m satisfied with the 8,000 quantity,” Bauman said. “I expect it to be corresponding to the Cotton Bowl last year of the Alamo Bowl a number of years in the past, where the number that we promote through our workplace doesn’t sound all that extraordinary. but you’re going to get down there on game day and there’s going to be a ton of orange all over.”

    So possibly, those tickets on livingsocial.com were positioned there via the NFL’s Cowboys. And that means there are a variety of seats obtainable inside the colossal venue, with a primary-seating means of 80,000.

    Some competencies factors for lack of ticket sales for the opener:

    cost: those livingsocial.com offers might bargain the can charge of the ticket, but do nothing to offset transportation, parking, inn and different a variety of traveling prices that go together with attending the opener. And diehard OSU and FSU enthusiasts simply dished out the massive bucks to attend out-of-state bowl video games to finish closing season; the Cowboys at the Cotton Bowl in AT&T Stadium and the Seminoles on the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, Calif. As flat-reveal TVs and sound techniques have become greater cost effective to the middle-classification fan, staying at home has become an increasingly attractive and not pricey choice.

    first-class of competition: This online game would have a little bit more hype had it been played closing yr, when OSU and FSU were preseason excellent-25 ranked teams. The competitors appears somewhat more one-sided in 2014, as the Seminoles return as national champions and the Cowboys are in a rebuilding part.

    school soccer alternatives in Arlington: There may be six college soccer games played interior AT&T Stadium this season.

    Aug. 30, FSU vs. OSU

    Sept. 13, Texas vs. UCLA

    Sept. 27, Texas A&M vs. Arkansas

    Nov. 29, Texas Tech vs. Baylor

    Jan. 1, Cotton Bowl

    Jan. 12, national Championship online game

    That’s a variety of alternate options for the faculty soccer fan who lives in the area who can’t attend all six games. It best cuts down the probability that person will attend OSU’s online game with a plethora of alternate options all season lengthy.

    You may also be interested in...

    HS SOFTBALL: Pine Grove wins Schuylkill League championship | killexams.com real questions with brain dumps

    Article tools Photo: JACQUELINE DORMER, License: N/A, Created: 2017:05:18 20:01:50

    JACQUELINE DORMER / body of workers PHOTOGRAPHER Pine Grove's Amanda Schaeffer, right, races against domestic plate as head train Ryan Leffler reacts throughout Thursday’s Spotts coverage group Schuylkill League Softball Championship game. Schaeffer stole third base on the play, then received up and scored when Tamaqua made an error.

    Photo: JACQUELINE DORMER, License: N/A, Created: 2017:05:18 20:44:13

    JACQUELINE DORMER / team of workers PHOTOGRAPHER Pine Grove celebrates with the Schuylkill League championship trophy after defeating Tamaqua 7-three in Thursday’s Spotts insurance group Schuylkill League Softball Championship video game at Patton container in Orwigsburg.

    ORWIGSBURG — “Cardinal Chaos’’ carried Pine Grove to the Spotts insurance community Schuylkill League Softball Championship.

    Slapping and operating, bunting and running, stealing and always looking to take the additional base, Pine Grove tore down Tamaqua’s protection in a 7-three victory Thursday evening at Blue Mountain’s Patton field.

    “this is what we wanted the total season,’’ senior 2nd baseman Jen Kaufman observed. “We labored tough for it, and now we’re ultimately right here.’’

    The league title is the Cardinals’ third due to the fact the league playoffs again in 2009. Pine Grove additionally earned Schuylkill gold in 2010 and 2012.

    The cards comprehensive as league runner-up to Williams Valley remaining season, and many of the avid gamers from that team again for this go-round.

    This time, Pine Grove would not be denied.

    For the third time this season in opposition t Tamaqua, the Cardinals (20-2) scored in the first inning and made the Blue Raiders (18-5) play from in the back of the leisure of the video game.

    “The youngsters basically, definitely desired this,’’ Pine Grove coach Ryan Leffler said. “intention No. 1 for them became to win leagues. They received something achieved nowadays. That feels first rate. They worked so hard for it. I’m just so proud of them.’’

    if you desire an illustration of how Pine Grove gained this game, accept as true with Kate Rittenbaugh’s commute around the bases in the backside of the primary inning.

    main off, Rittenbaugh hit a one-hopper to shortstop. Sprinting down the road, she pressured an errant throw and reached on the error. On the subsequent pitch, Rittenbaugh stole 2nd base. She took third on a passed ball and scored on Kaufman’s RBI groundout to third base.

    When the throw went across the diamond, Rittenbaugh broke for the plate and deftly slid round catcher Brooke Zellner’s tag to make it 1-0 two batters in.

    “I feel it's the philosophy of our online game,’’ Kaufman spoke of. “We put the pressure on them, and that they ought to make the performs.’’

    Rittenbaugh and Kaufman — Nos. 1 and 2 in the PGA lineup — bought on base twice apiece, and that they scored both times they reached. When Pine Grove receives four runs out of those two gamers, it’s really challenging to beat.

    Tamaqua likes to do anything identical with its true two batters, but successful pitcher Liv Lehman held them to a 1-for-7 day with a stroll and no runs scored.

    Rittenbaugh and Kaufman led off the third with infield singles, and two mistakes and a wild pitch produced two more runs for a 3-0 lead.

    within the fourth inning, Pine Grove bunched a leadoff walk, 5 hits, two Tamaqua mistakes and two stolen bases to push 4 more runs throughout the plate. When the grime settled, the cards led 7-0.

    Early in that inning, faith Sleva raced first to third on Avery Nagle’s perfectly positioned drag-bunt single. Nagle bunted previous the pitcher into the open house vacated via the 2nd baseman. That put runners on the corners with one out and set the tone for the huge inning.

    “that you can’t in fact play with the quantity of errors we dedicated,’’ Tamaqua train Jillian Barron mentioned. “i can’t truly clarify it. ... That’s probably the most errors we’ve given up all season.’’

    in the sixth inning, Pine Grove’s protection stumbled, making three error. Tamaqua took competencies to reduce the deficit to 4 runs.

    Miranda Chinchar led off with a single and raced to 3rd on an outfield error. Cailyn Joseph adopted with a single to force her in.

    After yet another error stored the inning alive, Jane Kupchinsky hit a bloop, two-run double to make it 7-3.

    After Joseph’s single, Jada Schellhammer lined into a 4-three double play. If no longer for that, Tamaqua’s rally inning could have been plenty larger.

    Now each teams will flip their consideration to the District 11 playoffs. in the new six classifications, Pine Grove is type AAA. Tamaqua is category 4A. The Cardinals are the defending District eleven class AA champion and reached the state semifinals last season.

    “here is simply the birth,’’ Kaufman stated. “we now have a protracted means to head yet.’’

    Contact the writer: blipsky@republicanherald.com; 570-628-6012; @boblipskyRH on Twitter

    video game summary

    Schuylkill League Championship

    At Patton container, Orwigsburg

    TAMAQUA (3) — Hoffman ss three 0 0 0, Zellner c four 0 1 0, Trevorah cr 0 0 0 0, Chinchar 1b four 1 2 0, Joseph cf three 0 1 1, Schellhammer p 3 0 0 0, Stauffenberg dp 3 1 2 0, Frederickson 2b 2 1 1 0, Kupchinsky rf 3 0 1 2, Matsago lf 3 0 0 0, Donnon 3b 0 0 0 0. Totals 28 three 8 three.

    PINE GROVE (7) — Rittenbaugh ss four 2 1 0, Kaufman 2b 4 2 2 1, Kopinetz c three 0 1 1, Behrent cr 0 0 0 0, Becher dp three 0 2 0, Hasenauer 1b 3 0 0 0, L. Lehman p 2 0 2 0, M. Lehman cr 0 0 0 0, Sleva 3b 2 1 0 0, Nagle cf three 1 1 0, Schaeffer lf 2 1 1 1, Hindman ph 1 0 0 0, Kershner rf 0 0 0 0. Totals 27 7 10 3.

    Tam (18-5) 000 003 0 — 3

    PG (20-2) 102 400 x — 7

    E — Tamaqua 6, Pine Grove 3. DP — Tamaqua 1, Pine Grove 1. LOB — Tamaqua 5, Pine Grove four. 2B — Kupchinsky, L. Lehman. SB — Rittenbaugh, Kaufman, Schaeffer. S — Frederickson, Sleva.

    Tamaqua IP H R ER BB okay

    Schlhmr L,16-5 6 10 7 3 1 2

    Pine Grove IP H R ER BB k

    L.Lhmn W,17-1 7 eight 3 1 1 3

    WP — Schellhammer. PB — Zellner. T — 1:34.

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    LPI 102-400 Exam (LPI Level 1 Exam 102, Junior Level Linux Certification, Part 2 of 2) Detailed Information

    LPI is the global certification standard and career support organization for open source professionals. With more than 500,000 exams delivered, it's the world’s first and largest vendor-neutral Linux and open source certification body. LPI has certified professionals in 181 countries, delivers exams in 9 languages, and has over 200 training partners.
    Recommended for professionals: LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3
    For IT professionals who want their Linux and open source skills verified in order to boost their career momentum, why wait? According to the Foote Partners report, ‘IT Skills and Certification Index’, there’s double-digit growth in bonuses paid to LPI certified candidates.
    According to CompTIA HR perceptions of IT Training and Certification study:
    96% use IT certifications as screening or hiring criteria during recruitment.
    90% agree IT certified individuals are more likely to be promoted than those without.
    89% think IT certified individuals perform better than non certified individuals in similar job roles.
    88% say IT certified employees are rewarded (bonus and pay increase) for obtaining IT certification.
    94% expect IT certification to grow in importance over the next two years.
    88% believe it’s important to test after training to confirm knowledge gains.
    97% value certification enough to provide support for IT employees obtaining certification.
    The open source Jobs Report says hiring managers are looking for open source professionals.
    34% are willing to aid with the cost of an employee's open source certification
    59% are looking to increase open source hiring
    74% have a need for developers
    58% are seeking DevOps professionals
    65% report open source hiring will rise more than hiring in other departments
    87% say it's hard to find open source talent
    "ManpowerGroup recently found that 36% of employers globally reported talent shortages in 2014—the highest percentage in seven years. In the United States, more than half (54%) of employers currently have open positions for which they can’t find qualified candidates. Unemployment rates for highly skilled workers continue to fall, job openings are on the rise and companies are finding an increased need to focus their attention on finding staff with job-specific skills needed to meet rapidly changing technologies.”
    — ITCC, 2016 white paper, ’The trends that will affect the IT certification industry by 2020’
    How open source professionals keep their skills up to date:
    open source Jobs Report 2016 open source Jobs Report 2016
    LPI tops the list of Linux certs by population according to Certification Magazine
    1. Linux Professional Institute LPIC-1 37.9%
    2. Linux Foundation Certified Systems Administrator (LFCS) 36.0%
    3. Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) 24.2%
    4. Red Hat Certified Systems Administrator (RHCSA) 22.2%
    5. SUSE Certified Linux Administrator (CLA) 20.3%
    6. CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI 18.3%
    7. Linux Professional Institute LPIC-2 17.0%
    8. Novell Certified Linux Professional 15.7%
    9. Linux Foundation Certified Engineer 13.7%
    10. Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) 8.5%
    How we create our certifications
    LPI is committed to providing the IT community with exams of the highest quality, relevance, and accuracy. This commitment requires that our exam development process is highly detailed, participatory, consultative and employs many of the proven techniques used by most other IT certification programs.
    Exam Development
    LPI’s exam development process is detailed, thorough, participatory, collaborative and employs many proven techniques used by the best IT certification programs.
    Psychometrics, the study of testing and measuring mental capacity, is used throughout LPI certification development to ensure that our exams reflect the needs of the IT community and industry.
    Development Structure
    As a part of our ongoing certification development process we continually monitor the needs of the Linux and IT markets to ensure our exams effectively evaluate candidates on the most relevant skills.
    When we began this process in the late 1990’s we initially launched a two-tiered certification track that became what is known as LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 today. Over the years we have expanded our offerings to include the third tier to the LPIC professional track with the three enterprise specialties of LPIC-3. We’ve also introduced an entry-level certificate program, Linux Essentials, for those seeking to add some Linux to their credentials.
    Job Task Analysis
    After development of a program structure and a job description for an exam or series, the next stage is to scientifically determine the skills, tasks and areas of knowledge needed for the job. The challenge: Anyone could come up with a list of tasks they think a Linux professional should be able to do. If you ask 10 Linux professionals what a “junior-level” professional should do, you might get 10 lists.
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    Our solution: We ask a large number of Linux professionals for their lists of necessary job duties, and then compile the responses to find the common and most important tasks. The most important tasks show up on all lists.
    This process is called job analysis study or job task analysis. LPI has completed extensive job analysis surveys of Linux professionals to help ensure exams are unbiased and constructed fairly.
    How we do it:
    First we work with a large pool of subject-matter experts to compile an exhaustive list of all the tasks that they think might be performed by the target audience of the certification.
    Job Analysis Survey
    Next, the tasks collected during the pre-survey go into a job analysis survey. This survey asks practicing Linux professionals to rate each task in several ways:
    Frequency: How often they perform the task.
    Importance: How important it is for an administrator to be able to perform the task.
    Data analysis
    Finally, we conduct statistical analysis of the survey responses. We compute statistics indicating, on average, how critical respondents rated each task. This analysis guides the determination of the final job task list.
    Objective Development
    The third major stage of development is converting the results from the Job Analysis Study to develop the actual objectives for the exam(s). Objectives express specific things that Linux professionals must be able to do. Each objective is assigned a weighting value indicating its importance relative to other objectives.
    Initial Objective Drafting
    First, a small group of people with knowledge of both Linux technical issues and psychometric principles drafted an initial set of test objectives, basing them upon the results of the job analysis study.
    Objective Review and Revision
    After the draft objectives are created, they are placed online in a web based system for public review and comment. This system organizes objectives by exam and content topic, displaying the objectives themselves, along with links to additional documentation about the objectives. Public comments about objectives are collected and then supervisors review the comments and revise the objectives as necessary. The most recent review and revision of the objectives is posted publicly on our LPI Exam Development wiki and we send them to our community and ExamDev mailing list for comments and input.
    When the objectives are finalized, we post them to LPI.org and let our community as well as courseware and training providers know, so that the training materials can be updated to reflect the new exam material.
    Item Development
    Once the objectives are finalized, we being the process of writing questions, called items, for exams. Security is a major concern in item development. All items are kept as confidential as possible by having those involved in the process sign non-disclosure agreements agreeing not to disclose item content to anyone. LPI also takes other undisclosed security precautions.
    Item writing
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    But this technique is expensive and exclusive. At LPI, during our initial exam development phase we leveraged the power of the community through the internet to encouraged everyone who was interested and knowledgeable to help with item writing.
    Since then, LPI has developed new items for exam rotation in house by tapping the knowledge of subject matter experts, online volunteers and participants in item writing workshops.
    Item Screening
    Supervisors screened all submitted exam items, and accepted, rejected or reworded them. They focused on three criteria:
    Redundancy: Items that are substantially identical to previously submitted items are rejected.
    Phrasing and Clarity: Items phrased in confusing or otherwise inappropriate ways are rejected or reworded. Supervisors pay attention to ensure that questions can be understood by non-native English speakers.
    Accuracy: Supervisors rejected or reworded items that are not technically accurate.
    Item Technical Review
    Next, LPI uses a group of Linux experts to put items through a technical review. Each item is reviewed by multiple experts. Each expert classifies items as approved, rejected or “other” for rewording or review by others.
    The primary technical criteria:
    Appropriateness of distractors (for multiple-choice items): Reviewers ensure that the distractor answer choices are incorrect but reasonably plausible.
    Phrasing and clarity: Reviewers ensure items are worded in appropriate language.
    Expected difficulty
    Supervisors then collect the reviews to determine if each item was:
    Accepted based on consensus
    Rejected based on consensus
    Accepted after further review: If reviewers did not agree, the supervisor might accept it, perhaps based on the opinion of another reviewer.
    Rejected after further review: If reviewers did not agree, the supervisor might reject it, perhaps based on the opinion of another reviewer.
    Accepted after revision: In some cases, reviewers might suggest rewording the item and the supervisor might accept the item after rewording it.
    Exam Creation
    Live Form Creation
    The next stage of development involves assembling items into exams for global deployment. Each test has multiple forms. If candidates fails one form and retake the exam, they receive the different form of the exam on retake attempt.
    The Pearson VUE test engine randomly orders the questions of each form when someone takes the exam to ensure two candidates taking the same exam are not tested on the same questions in the same order.
    Initial Exam Publishing
    Once the LPI psychometric staff has determined the composition of forms, the exam must be converted from text-based items into the actual exam file format to deployed globally through LPI’s network of testing centers.
    The exam enter a period of initial testing to determine if the questions are in fact measuring skills and competencies. In IT certification, this period is known as the beta testing period.
    During the beta period, candidates can register for tests and complete them at local events. They receive credit, but candidates do not receive scores back immediately after the exam. Beta exams often involve extra questions with an extended-time format as well as additional survey and demographic questions. Several simultaneous processes determine the cut score, so that exams may be evaluated and scored.
    Obtaining Enough Exams
    Before the passing score can be set, LPI had to accumulate an adequate number of exams taken by people who are similar to the target job description. As our support has grown, our target data numbers continue to grow, helping to generate the most accurate results. As part of the beta exam process, demographic data is taken into account by psychometric staff when reviewing the validity of questions.
    Reviewing the Questions
    As tests results roll in, psychometric staff start to examine the data. Asking questions such as: Are there questions that everyone gets correct? Are there questions that everyone fails? to determine if there anything wrong with the questions. Exam comments collected during the process are reviewed and questions and concerns are addressed.
    Modified Angoff Study
    While psychometric staff review incoming data, a separate pool of subject-matter experts simultaneously participated in a modified Angoff study. Their goal, to provide the psychometric staff with additional data to validate questions and assist in setting the passing score.
    During this process, the experts:
    Receive copies of the exam questions on each form.
    Look at each question independently and in consultation with each other and make judgments about how likely a minimally qualified person meeting the job requirements described in a specification sheet would be able to answer the question correctly. In other words, the experts consider the question from the perspective of someone who is at the bottom of the competence scale for job performance.
    Rate each question with their estimate of what percentage of people will answer correctly, keeping in mind that on multiple choice questions, some people will get it right by virtue of guessing.
    Ideally, the results from the Angoff study should parallel the actual results from the exams in the beta period. Beyond validating item performance, the results of the Angoff study are also used in helping to establish the passing score for exams.
    Distributing Score Results
    After all of the data collection, the analysis and the Angoff study, the psychometric staff set a passing score, and distribute scores to exam takers who participated in the beta.
    Exam Republishing
    Once the beta has been completed, the passing score has been set, and any bad items have been removed or fixed, the exam is ready to be re-published. This work involves significant review and can take a month or more to complete. Once this final review process is complete, we coordinate with Pearson VUE and our partner network to publish the finalized exams for all test takers worldwide.
    Why Written Exams
    Written exams are a global standard.
    Multiple choice is a common standard for most certification and licensure exams. Whether you want to be a doctor, lawyer, or chartered accountant, most professions require that you pass a multiple-choice exam. The procedures for producing high-quality multiple choice exams are firmly established. No such standard exists for hands-on exams. Therefore they tend to be ad hoc and rarely include pilot testing, item analysis, formal standard setting, and equating.
    Written exams are valid.
    Written job knowledge exams have approximately the same levels of predictive validity as job simulations (Roth et al., 2005)
    Written exams are more efficient.
    Written exams with individual questions are more efficient than exams with more complex item types. For example, Jodoin (2003) examined innovative item types on an IT certification exam that required examinees to construct answers (e.g. draw a network diagram). He found that these constructed response items provided more information but also took additional time. As a result, he concluded that, “multiple-choice items provide more information per unit time.”
    Written exams cover all objectives.
    Certification exams (like LPI’s) cover a broad range of knowledge areas. Using individual items, written exams can easily ensure adequate coverage of all objectives. Because of practical constraints, hands-on testing must either sample narrowly from these objectives or cover a much smaller body of knowledge.
    Written exams are more valuable.
    Hands-on testing is typically more expensive in all phases, including item development, pilot testing, administration, and scoring. If hands-on testing is more expensive but not more reliable or valid, then it offers less value.
    Written exams are more reliable and objective.
    Scoring practices for open-ended exams vary considerably, but the literature on scoring constructed responses suggests that subjective scoring is often less reliable than the scoring of traditional items. The literature on job performance suggests that objective measures of performance are also unreliable.
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