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200-500 - Zend PHP 5 - Dump Information

Vendor : Zend
Exam Code : 200-500
Exam Name : Zend PHP 5
Questions and Answers : 218 Q & A
Updated On : July 21, 2017
PDF Download Mirror : 200-500 Brain Dump
Get Full Version : Pass4sure 200-500 Full Version


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200-500 Questions and Answers

200-500
  1. krsort()

  2. Array_multisort ()


Answer: B


Question: 206

In the following code, which class can be instantiated? 1 <?php

  1. abstract class Graphics {

  2. abstract function draw($im, $col); 4 }

5

6 abstract class Point1 extends Graphics { 7 public $x, $y;

8 function construct($x, $y) { 9 $this->x = $x;

10 $this->y = $y; 11 }

  1. function draw($im, $col) {

  2. ImageSetPixel($im, $this->x, $this->y, $col); 14 }

15 }

16

17 class Point2 extends Point1 { } 18

19 abstract class Point3 extends Point2 { } 20 ?>


  1. Graphics

  2. Point1

  3. Point2

  4. Point3

  5. None, the code is invalid


Answer: C


Question: 207

What does an object based on the Active Record pattern provide?


  1. A way to actively control the application's workflow

  2. A way to record the history of its changes

  3. A way to effortlessly store its properties in a database


Answer: C


Question: 208

What will the following function call print? Printf ('%010.6f', 22);


A. 22

B. 22.00

C. 022.000000

D. 22.000000

46

Answer: C

Question: 209

The following code piece should print "PHP is cool", but unexpectedly, it just prints "cool". How would you correct it? echo str_replace('PHP is a pain.', 'a pain', 'cool');


  1. str_replace('PHP is a pain.', 'cool', 'a pain');

  2. str_replace('a pain', 'cool', 'PHP is a pain.');

  3. str_replace('cool', 'a pain', 'PHP is a pain.');


Answer: B


Question: 210

What is the result of the following code: class T { const A = 42 + 1; } echo T::A;


  1. 42

  2. 43

  3. Parse error


Answer: C


Question: 211

Which of the following code snippets is correct?(Choose 2)

  1. interface Draw able { abstract function draw();}

  2. interface Point { function getX();function getY(); }

  3. interface Line extends Point { function getX2(); function getY2(); }

  4. interface Circle implements Point {function getRadius (); }


  1. a)

  2. b)

  3. c)

  4. d)


Answer: B, C


Question: 212

Is the following code piece E_STRICT compliant? final class Testing { private $test; public function tester() {return "Tested!"; }}


  1. Yes

  2. No


Answer: A


Question: 213

The purpose of the singleton pattern is to...


  1. ...creates applications that only a single user may use.

  2. ...has just one single instance of an object in the entire application.

  3. ...has only one instance of each object in a collection of objects.


Answer: B


Question: 214

What happens if you try to access a property wh4o7se name is defined in a parent class as private, and is not declared in the current class?

  1. An E_NOTICE error will be triggered.

  2. An E_ERROR error will be triggered.

  3. An E_WARNING error will be triggered.

  4. No errors will be triggered


Answer: A


Question: 215

What is the output of the following code? 1 <?php

2 echo '1' . (print '2') + 3;

3 ?>


  1. 123

  2. 213

  3. 142

  4. 214

  5. Syntax error


Answer: D


Question: 216

An object can be counted with count() and size of() if it


  1. Implements Array Access

  2. Has a public count() method

  3. Was cast to an object from an array

  4. None of the above


Answer: D


Question: 217

When uploading a file to a PHP script using the HTTP PUT method, where would the information about this file be available?


  1. The $_FILES super-global

  2. The input stream php://stdin

  3. The $_POST super-global

  4. The global variable scope


Answer: B


Question: 218

What will the $array contain at the end of this script? 1 <?php

2 function modify Array (&$array) 3 {

4 for each ($array as &$value) 5 {

  1. $value = $value + 1;

  2. }

8

  1. $value = $value + 2; 48

  2. }

11

  1. $array = array (1, 2, 3);

  2. modify Array($array);

  3. ?>


A. 2, 3, 4

B. 2, 3, 6

C. 4, 5, 6

D. 1, 2, 3


Answer: B


49


Zend 200-500 Exam (Zend PHP 5) Detailed Information

PHP and Zend Framework Certifications
The Zend Certified PHP Engineer and Zend Framework Certification programs are created and monitored by an independent advisory board whose members contribute heavily to PHP and Zend Framework open source projects. Zend Certification exams follow accepted industry standards to test technical knowledge and skills needed in today’s job market and are recognized as the Industry Standard for PHP exams. The exams are offered through more than 4,000 Pearson Vue testing centers worldwide. Zend offers comprehensive Study Guides and Test Prep Classes to help you achieve your certification goal.
Zend PHP Certification
is an industry-wide standard that recognizes PHP expertise and is a measure of distinction that employers use to evaluate prospective employees. Join the thousands of PHP professionals who have received official certifications .
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Zend Framework 2 Certification
is an industry-wide standard that recognizes the attainment of a professional level of expertise in using Zend Framework 2. This certification is also a measure of distinction that employers use to evaluate prospective employees.
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Zend Framework 1 Certification
is an industry-wide standard that recognizes the attainment of a professional level of expertise in using Zend Framework 1. This certification is also a measure of distinction that employers use to evaluate prospective employees.
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ZCE Quotes
Check out a few short videos on why & how these ZCEs became certified!
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Zend Certified Engineer Directory
Designed for employers, the ZCE Directory is a global repository of PHP experts who have achieved the highest PHP accreditation available--Zend Certified Engineer.
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Advisory Board
The Zend Certification Advisory Boards have established the certification criteria necessary to demonstrate expertise in PHP and ZF. Its members have been selected from among the leaders of the PHP community.
Details
FAQ
Have questions about the certification process? Get your answers here.
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Why Become a Zend Certified Engineer (ZCE)?
The maturity of PHP and its steady growth in mobile, web and cloud application development drives demand for highly-skilled PHP developers. In today’s fiercely competitive markets, how do the best developers stand out in the crowd? They earn a Zend Certification – globally recognized as the industry standard for benchmarking and validating PHP expertise. More than 10,000 Zend Certified Engineers are benefitting greatly from their credentials, and you can too.
Personal & Career Benefits
Capture the attention of recruiters
Gain employer recognition for promotions and raises
Connect with PHP community leaders through your listing in the Zend Certified Engineer Directory
Score job opportunities or consulting referrals by participating in the ZCE group on LinkedIn
Get discounted ZendCon passes, the global PHP conference
Download ZCE logos for personal use. Post on your resume, CV, LinkedIn page or business cards
Employer Benefits
Standardize and ensure a high level of expertise in your PHP development teams
Implement industry best practices in your PHP development organizations
Maximize your team productivity and performance
Present a superior professional image to your customers and partners
Gain competitive advantages compared to other software development organizations
Use the "We Employ" logo to show you have ZCEs on Staff
ZCE License
FREE Tools from Zend
Have you earned a Zend Certified Engineer certification?
One of the benefits of this industry standard recognizing PHP expertise is access to Zend developer tools.
We provide Zend Server Developer Edition and a free perpetual copy of Zend Studio to Zend Certified Engineers at no cost
Apply Now and be Recognized
Reserve your spot for the Exam by purchasing a Certification Voucher. Receive official certification and be recognized in the community.
Apply Now
How do I obtain a Certification?
Prepare for the PHP Exam
Zend PHP Certification Training Course
Learn more about the PHP Certification exam
Purchase the Zend PHP Certification Study Guide
Purchase the PHP Exam Voucher
Prepare for the Zend Framework 2 Exam
Zend Framework 2 Certification Study Guide - Available Now!
Zend Framework 2 Certification Training Course
Learn more about the exam Zend Framework 2 Certification exam
Purchase the Zend Framework Exam voucher
Take the Exam
Zend certification examinations are delivered by Pearson Vue, the world’s leading test center network.
Scheduling an Exam through Pearson Vue
After the Exam
Zend Certified Engineer Directory
Zend Certification Logos
Join the LinkedIn Private ZCE Group - must provide your ZCE#
Q: Why should I take a Zend Certification exam?
Becoming a Zend Certified Engineer is a measure of your experience in the world of PHP. The goal of the Zend Certification program is to allow PHP professionals to attain the "Zend Certified Engineer" designation. This is identical in concept to other well know certification programs such as "Microsoft's Certified Professionals (MCP)" and the "Sun Certified Java Programmer (SCJP)" programs. The Zend Certification program aims at creating a measure of distinction that employers can use to evaluate prospective employees. Becoming a Zend Certified Engineer will not make you a better programmer, however, it will most likely improve the chances of your resume standing out from among other applicants vying for the same position.
Q: Who wrote the exams?
The Zend Certification exams encompasses curriculum specified the Zend PHP Education Advisory Board and the Zend Framework Education Advisory Board as essential to demonstrate expert proficiency in PHP or Zend Framework.
Each Board's members are among the most well known and respected in the PHP and Zend Framework Communities. It is important to note that the Board is completely neutral and was not influenced by Zend's business objectives. In fact, the only point Zend insisted upon was that exam exclude references or questions relating to Zend's products.
Q: Where do I take the exam?
You will be required to go to a Pearson VUE Testing Center, which are available in over 4700 locations around the world. Contact your local testing center to arrange an exam date/time. You can register online or by calling your local center.
Q: What are the exams like?
The exam itself is very similar to most other IT exams offered these days. The exam is taken in an isolated room, using a specially configured computer. The exam is closed-book, so you won't be able to consult any reference material or use the Internet while taking it.
The PHP exam is composed of a total of 70 questions, and the Zend Framework 1 & 2 Exam is composed of 70 questions, which must be answered in 90 minutes. Each question can be formulated in one of three ways:
As a multiple-choice question with only one right answer.
As a multiple-choice question with multiple correct answers.
As a free-form question for which the answer must be typed in.
Q: What topics/subjects does the PHP exam cover?
The exam was designed to evaluate knowledge of PHP from a practical perspective. While there are a few theoretical items, the vast majority of the questions are based on the ability to evaluate and analyze a snippet of code. For a complete list of topics, see: PHP Certification
Q: Do I need to know anything particular (other than PHP) for the PHP certification exam to pass?
Put simply, you need to know those technologies that a PHP developer uses in his/her day-to-day job, including databases and regular expressions. As far as the latter are concerned, the focus is on Perl regular expressions, while for databases the focus is on standard SQL, rather than any particular implementation. If you've learned databases exclusively by using MySQL, it is strongly urged you look into standard SQL, because MySQL diverges from it in some significant ways.
Why standard SQL? A PHP developer should know about proper database design so that he/she can work with more than one DBMS, and so that the developer who uses, say, Oracle or PostgreSQL is not at a disadvantage -- after all, this is a PHP exam, not a LAMP one.
Q: Can I use my PHP Certification voucher for the Zend Framework exam?
Yes, the exam vouchers can be used for either exam.
Q: How long do I have to take the exam after I purchase the voucher?
The certification voucher is valid for 1 year from the date of purchase.
Q: Can I get a refund or transfer my voucher?
Sorry, but we do not offer refunds for exam voucher purchases. However, the voucher can be transferred to another person and used prior to the expiration date.
Q: What other resources are available?
The official Zend Certification Study Guides are available for purchase; PHP Study Guide, Zend Framework Study Guide. The Zend Framework 2 Study Guide should be available late Q2 2014.
If you prefer to learn from a professional instructor in an online setting, consider taking one of Zend's Test Prep courses: PHP or Zend Framework. Each training class includes sample exam questions and a voucher for the certification exam - a $195 value.
Q: How will I know if I passed?
At the end of the exam you will receive a pass/fail grade. Should you fail, Zend offers re-take discounts, please email us atcertification@zend.com.
Q: What should I take to the exam?
On the day of the exam don't forget to take 2 forms of identification with you to the testing center--testing staff must verify your identity.
Q: When will my details be updated on the Yellow Pages for PHP Professionals?
Once you have passed the exam, it takes 24-48 hours for your name and credentials to be published in the Zend Yellow Pages for PHP Professionals. To edit your ZCE details go to the Yellow Pages for PHP Professionals page and follow the instructions. You will be able to upload your picture, choose to display your company name, and much more.
Q: When will I receive my diploma?
We will mail your diploma once you have passed the exam. Please allow 8-10 weeks for delivery.
Q: Can I use the term 'Zend Certified Engineer' on my resume/CV or business card?
In general, yes. You can also include the logo provided here. The only except is for those who have passed the Zend PHP Certification exam and live in Ontario, Canada. For legal reasons you cannot use the designation "Zend Certified Engineer" on your resume/CV or business card. You can however use the acronym "ZCE" to stand for "Zend Certification Endorsed".
Q: On what version of Zend Framework is the Zend Framework Certification exam based?
The Zend Framework Certification exam is based on Zend Framework version 1.5 and the Zend Framework 2 Certification is based on version 2.2. Test takers should study this version of Zend Framework when preparing for the exam.
Q: Is there a non-disclosure agreement, and terms and conditions associated with the exams?
Before taking an exam, a candidate must read it and agree to the terms of our non-disclosure agreement. The non-disclosure agreement is presented to the candidate before the exam starts. If you do not agree to the non-disclosure agreement, you can end the exam, but you will forfeit the exam fee. The NDA prohibits you from discussing or describing the exam or its questions with anyone.
Q: Will there be a PHP 7 Certification exam?
Zend is committed to continuing it’s tradition of certifying PHP developers. We have begun the process of creating the Zend PHP 7 Certification. As the process advances we will keep the community updated on our progress.
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  • Article by ArticleForge

    Are you or your firm in the “Panama Files”? Alaa Mubarak is, along with half of the Gulf’s rulers past and present.

    Are you or your firm in the “Panama Files”? Alaa Mubarak is, along with half of the Gulf’s rulers past and present.

    SUBJECT LINE

    Panama files target Alaa Mubarak, Gulf rulers. Foreign fund managers have appetite for Egypt. Prosecutor probes FX offices. State settles with Hussein Salem.

    TL;DR

    Are you or your firm in the “Panama Files”? Alaa Mubarak is, along with half of the Gulf’s rulers past and present.

    Foreign fund managers have new appetite for Egypt, Reuters poll finds. (Speed Round)

    Prosecutor investigates 15 FX bureaux on charges of hoarding. (Speed Round)

    State reportedly settles with Hussein Salem. (Speed Round)

    BG wants to export 150 mcf daily as a condition of resuming operations on Phase 9B. (Speed Round)

    Italian tourism associations threatens to halt activities to Egypt if Regeni murder not solved. (Speed Round)

    US Senator Lindsey Graham wants to see increased military aid to Egypt. (Diplomacy + Foreign Trade)

    SUMED seeks over USD 100 mn in financing despite Saudi objections. (Energy)

    Juhayna subsidiary sells stake in milk producer. (Basic Materials + Commodities)

    By the Numbers

    WHAT WE’RE TRACKING TODAY

    Are you or your firm in the “Panama Files”? The International Consortium of Investigative journalists, an activist-journalist outfit, has partnered with the Guardian, the BBC and Germany’s Süddeutsche Zeitung on a series headlined “A new ICIJ Investigation Exposes a Rogue Offshore Industry.” The introduction to the story promises to reveal how “mns of documents show heads of state, criminals and celebrities using secret hideaways in tax havens,” among them, they claim are Alaa Mubarak (the son of former president Hosni Mubarak), King Salman of Saudi Arabia, the UAE’s Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Qatar’s Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani and Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani. (Start here if you want to view by person the packages released so far.) The stories are based on what’s allegedly a leaked trove of 11.5 mn documents from the Panamanian law firm of Mossack Fonseca. The documents and stories are still trickling out, but we’ll be sifting what’s available now for stories of regional interest after tripping across this nugget: “The firm has serviced enough Middle East royalty to fill a palace. It’s helped two kings, Mohammed VI of Morocco and King Salman of Saudi Arabia, take to the sea on luxury yachts.” Tap here to go to the landing page for the series. The Guardian’s scene-setter is here, including a helpful Q&A noting “Are all people who use offshore structures crooks? No. Are some people who use offshore structures crooks? Yes.” The story has already crossed over into the domestic press, with Al Borsa picking it up.

    Several readers asked yesterday why we ignore special transactions in our monthly tabulation of the EGX league table, saying the transactions generate significant income. While the list without specials is our tradition given it represents organic trading through a firm’s platform, we’re going to report the results without specials and, separately, the league table for special transactions going forward. For the month of March, the EGX’s table for “traded deals” is headed by EFG Hermes, followed by Pharos, HC Securities, Beltone, and the Egyptian Arabian Company (Themar). The overall ranking (specials plus normal trading activity) sees EFG Hermes at the head of the list, followed by CI Capital, Pharos Holding, HC Securities and Beltone.

    Arabian Cement is holding its 4Q2015 results conference call today at 3 pm CLT. Joining the call are CEO Jose Maria Magrina, CFO Allan Hestbech, and IR Manager Haitham El Shaarawy.

    WHAT WE’RE TRACKING THIS WEEK

    The Purchasing Managers’ Indexes for Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates will be out tomorrow by 7:30am CLT.

    Saudi Arabia’s King Salman will visit Cairo on Thursday for talks with senior Egyptian officials including President Abdel Fattah El Sisi. Chatter in the local press is that we can expect to hear announcements of new Saudi companies investing in manufacturing, agriculture, tourism, and real estate.

    ON THE HORIZON

    Al Borsa reported yesterday that Egypt will begin exploring the possibility of an International Monetary Fund facility at the upcoming spring meetings of the IMF and World Bank for 15-17 April in Washington, DC. The story adds little new to chatter in the business community and cites unnamed sources. Due to attend: Finance Minister Amr El Garhy, International Cooperation Minister Sahar Nasr and Central Bank of Egypt Governor Tarek Amer. The website for the meetings is here. Or tap here to check out the tentative list of seminars for both institutions.

    ***ARE YOU BASED IN THE GCC? Enterprise: The GCC Edition is now in beta, publishing Sunday-Thursday at 3 am UTC GMT (7 am UAE, 6 am KSA, 5 am Cairo), give or take a few minutes. We’re in beta, after all. You can sign up via this link and may view the Enterprise GCC site online at gcc.enterprise.press. Comments, suggestions and criticisms are always welcome at editorialenterprisemeam.***

    SPEED ROUNDPresented in association with

    FX bureau crackdown: The Prosecutor General is investigating 15 FX bureaux after the Central Bank of Egypt reported them for hoarding USD, sources tell Reuters. CBE Governor Tarek Amer met the Prosecutor General on Saturday, as we reported yesterday, and requested an investigation amid accusations that some FX traders are fuelling a USD crisis by refusing to sell their stock of USD. “Based on his request the prosecution … requested from the unit in charge of public funds to investigate these [bureaux],” a source told the newswire. Sources tell Al Masry Al Youm that the number of bureaux being investigated stands at 14 and that they are being managed with the committee tasked with overseeing sequestered Ikhwani assets. Amer reportedly said he does not want to shut them down, but wants to force them to abide by market regulations.

    Meanwhile, the EGP rallied slightly against the USD on the parallel market, with EGP changing hands at 10.05 to the USD, Al Mal reports.

    Foreign fund managers have new appetite for Egypt in the wake of devaluation, according to Reuters’ monthly poll of 14 leading fund managers. Thirty-six percent expect to raise their allocations to Egyptian equities in the coming quarter in what Reuters calls “the most positive balance toward Egypt since December. Last month, 21 percent expected to cut their exposure there and 7 percent to raise it.” The newswire quotes the head of asset management at Abu Dhabi’s The National Investor as saying, “Investors are more confident to allocate money to the country,” but cautions that the FX crunch continues and that more devaluation could be on the way. Investors have also turned negative on Qatar as stocks go ex-dividend and on balance feel that the rally in the GCC equities market lacks a catalyst.

    BG wants an agreement to export 150 mcf daily if it’s going to resume work on Phase 9B and wants to amend the price of gas and reschedule the company’s receivables from EGPC. While the oil minister agreed to the exports, he said amending the exploration agreement and gas price are for the House of Representatives to decide, sources tell Al Borsa.

    The non-profit Italian Association for Responsible Tourism is halting all of its travel activities to Egypt “until the murder of Italian student Giulio Regeni is solved,” Ahram Online reports. The association explained in a statement that “Egypt is a wonderful country that offers great cultural attractions…but a vacation is not possible in the context of pain and indignation.” The group provides links to tours organised by accredited partners and promotes responsible tourism. The suspension of AITR’s activities will double the losses of the Egyptian tourism sector, according to head of the Federation of Egyptian Chambers of Tourism Elhamy El-Zayat, Daily News Egypt reports. “The sector has no means of curtailing losses in these conditions. The issue is now connected to politics in every aspect,” he said. Meanwhile, Al Shorouk is reporting that the first Italian flights to Matrouh are scheduled in mid-June, with sector workers expecting a slow summer season.

    An Egyptian security team will reportedly be sent to Rome on Tuesday to provide Italian authorities with the complete case file on the Regeni murder, Lamees Al Hadidi talk show host announced, basing her information on sources close to the case, Al Mal reports.

    The government has settled with fugitive businessman and East Mediterranean Gas owner Hussein Salem for EGP 5.8 bn and 95% of his non-liquid assets, announced Justice Minister Hussam Abdel Rahim. The settlement, which was agreed upon in conjunction with the Prosecutor General, will be sent to the cabinet for approval, he tells Al Ahram. Abdel Rahim’s predecessor, Ahmed El Zend, had announced right before his sacking that a settlement had been reached with Salem but had not announced the terms. El Zend had long been an advocate for settling with businessmen accused of corruption for a fee, and it would appear his successor favors the policy as well.

    House committee expects to complete review on cabinet’s program on Wednesday: The parliamentary committee on the cabinet’s national program will complete its review of the program by Wednesday, Ahram Gate reports. As we noted yesterday, the committee was supposed to submit its full report to the House today, but delayed it as the subcommittees on economics, administrative reform, and democracy have yet to complete their reports. Finance Minister Amr El Garhy was reportedly asked to discuss in more detail the financing projects on the agenda.

    EGYPT IN THE NEWS

    Ahram editor sends warning on Regeni case: The has taken note of a front-page opinion piece written by Al Ahram editor in chief Mohamed Abdel Hady Allam that warns if authorities don’t swiftly deal with the Giulio Regeni issue, Italian-Egyptian relations will be on the line. In the wake of the Italian Association for Responsible Tourism halting activities to Egypt, Allam warned that a “moment of truth” between Egypt and Italy over Regeni may be “fast approaching.”

    The Jerusalem Post is carrying a piece pegged “Egypt asks Hamas about status of four Israeli prisoners of war” following the announcement last week that Hamas was in possession of the remains of two IDF soldiers, and two Israeli nationals who went missing in the Gaza Strip. A Hamas delegation was in Cairo last week to rebuild relations with the Egyptian government.

    THE MACRO PICTURE

    An oil-driven surge has put Russia on the bull track with several strategists but investors aren’t quite feeling the love, according to . “There were a lot of short positions in oil which were closed, and an advance in oil prices helped Russian stocks rally, but I am still rather skeptical about oil prices and I don’t think the rally in Russian stocks is sustainable,” according to Hermes Investment Management fund manager Gary Greenberg. “A tactical short-term trade on the back of a commodity rally is one thing. It has nothing to do with fundamental investment.”

    The FT (paywall) reports that several banks are inching their way back to Iran, with Belgium’s KBC and Germany’s DZ Bank both confirming they began handling transactions on for European clients doing business in Iran after the lift on sanctions. But the shift isn’t happening as fast as some would like, with “growing political pressure on European banks to support corporate clients seeking to do business in Iran.” The chairman of one of Europe’s biggest banks told the paper: “All the lawyers’ reports I get continue to say there are still many sanctions left on Iran. It is difficult to know who you are dealing with as it has become uncharted territory.”

    DIPLOMACY + FOREIGN TRADE

    US Senator Lindsey Graham wants to see increased military aid to Egypt: A US congressional delegation met with President Abdel Fattah El Sisi yesterday to discuss security and stability, Ahram Online reports. Egypt’s stability “is more important than [at] any other time,” said US Senator Lindsey Graham. The delegation met a day earlier with Defense Minister Sedki Sobhi to “exchange visions on the the development of the situation in the region.” During a press conference following the meeting, Senator Graham said he wants to see an increase in US military aid to Egypt, the reported on Sunday.

    Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry meets with France’s Mideast peace talks envoy, Pierre Vimont, on Sunday, Al Wafd reports. Former French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius proposed the international conference to revive peace talks, and said France would “recognize a Palestinian state” if the talks failed, the French Foreign Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault said, according to Ahram Online. “Nothing is ever automatic. France will present its initiative to its partners.”

    The Agadir Agreement has been expanded to include Lebanon and Palestine, Trade and Industry Minister Tarek Kabil announced. Al Masry Al Youm reports that member states Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Jordan believe an even closer economic cooperation is achievable. Trade and Industry Minister Tarek Kabil signed five agreements with governments of Jordan, Tunisia and Morocco, which hopes to curb dumping of goods in each other’s markets, and coordinating policies on cutting subsidies, competition, arbitration, and trademark rights, Al Mal reports. Kabil also announced that a delegation of some of Morocco’s leading private sector companies are scheduled to arrive on 25 April to discuss private sector investments, AMAY  reports.

    Egypt signs six agreements and MoUs with Mauritania, during Mauritanian President Mohamed Abdel Aziz’s visit to Cairo, according to an Ittihadiya statement. The agreements include MoUs on cooperation in health, oil and gas and minerals as well as housing, utilities and urban development. The two sides also inked agreements on cooperation in maritime transport and livestock.

    ENERGY

    SUMED seeks over USD 100 mn in financing despite Saudi objectionsSUMED is looking to borrow USD 100-120 mn to finance expansions, Al Shorouk reported. Saudi shareholders are reportedly opposed to the idea of borrowing, preferring, instead, to rely on equity financing. Source say the expansion will go towards increasing the pipeline capacity and is estimated to cost around USD 200 mn in total. (Read in Arabic)

    El Sewedy submits proposal on Hamriyah plant bid in UAEEl Sewedy Electric submitted its technical and financial proposals for the USD 600 mn Hamriyah power plant in the UAE. Elsewedy is competing against seven international companies, including General Electric, Korea’s Doosan Group, China’s SIPCO, and Turkey’s GAMA. The project is located in the Sharjah emirate and includes shifting the plant’s current four gas turbines from a simple cycle to a combined cycle, while also adding a combined-cycle station. This bid makes El Sewedy Electric the first Egyptian company to qualify as a general contractor for energy projects in the UAE. (Read in Arabic)

    Heliopolis Housing to build EGP 228 mn electrical transmission network in HeliopolisHeliopolis Housing and Development signed a EGP 228 mn agreement with a certain National Company for General Contracting — an armed-forces-owned company — to design and build electrical substations and transmission lines in Heliopolis connecting the city with the Shorouk and Badr power plants, Al Borsa reports. (Read in Arabic)

    More delays expected in implementing the fuel smart card systemNot enough fuel smart cards being distributed was behind the delay in implementing the fuel smart cards system, said EGPC deputy head Amr Moustafa. The system — a cornerstone policy aimed at slashing fuel subsidies — cannot come online until enough fuel smart cards have been distributed, Moustafa added, stopping short of specifying when that might happen. The statements come after reports in January that the system was nearing completion. President Abdel Fattah El Sisi indefinitely postponed the rollout in May 2015. (Read in Arabic)

    INFRASTRUCTURE

    EGP 4.1 bn in planned road development projects, says Housing MinistryThe Housing Ministry is studying EGP 4.1 bn in planned road development projects set to begin in the coming period, it announced on Sunday . This includes EGP 2.1 bn for developments to existing transport corridors to Sixth of October, and EGP 1.5 bn for developing the road to the Western Desert, the Southern Dahshour Road, and the entrance to Fayoum. The developments also include expansions to existing roads in residential and industrial neighbourhoods totalling over EGP 500 mn. (Read)

    BASIC MATERIALS + COMMODITIES

    Juhayna subsidiary sells stake in milk producerAl-Enmaa for Agricultural Development, a subsidiary of Juhayna, is selling its stake in Milky’s for Milk Production. Al-Enmaa controlled 40% of the company and sold it for total consideration of EGP 56.5 mn. Juhayna says the “divestment is in line with the company’s strategy to divest indirect investments in milk production to focus on investment in focal sectors in agriculture and livestock production.” The sales proceeds will be used to finance operational expansions and increase the milking cow herd to 4,000 cows, according to a Juhayna statement to the EGX.  (Read)

    Are we back to the Mines and Quarries Act?Prime Minister Sherif Ismail called for the immediate implementation of the Mines and Quarries Act across all governorates in Egypt at a cabinet meeting held to prioritize and set their timelines for projects announced in the government program. The government’s Mineral Resources Act was shot down by the House back in January. The legislation was unpopular for setting what industry insiders claim were high royalties and rents in quarries. The cabinet’s national program had stated that it would develop the mining sector by skewing toward value-added projects rather than the sale of raw minerals. (Read in Arabic)

    HEALTH + EDUCATION

    No waiting list for Hepatitis C treatment by August, says Health MinisterHealth Minister Ahmed Rady pledged there would be no waiting lists for hepatitis C treatments by August, fueled by donations collected by the Religious Endowments Ministry as well as the Tahya Misr Fund. The former donated EGP 2 mn and six new ambulances, while the latter has “contributed to the treatment of 150,000 patients.” (Read)

    REAL ESTATE + HOUSING

    Housing and Development Bank receives proposal from Acumen-Beltone to manage its real estate fundHousing and Development Bank has received a proposal from Acumen-Beltone to manage the real estate fund the bank will launch in the coming period, sources tell Al Mal. The bank’s Chairman Fathy El Sebaei announced last week the intent to establish a real estate fund with a capital of EGP ">200-500 mn, but the fund’s capital has not been determined, the sources added. The bank is still waiting on proposals from EFG Hermes and Pioneers, the source said. (Read in Arabic)

    TOURISM

    Sunrise Resorts will invest EGP 8 bn over three yearsThe Sunrise Resorts and Cruises group is looking to invest EGP 8 bn into the domestic market through late-2018, said Chairman Hossam El Shaer. The group, along with a Saudi investor, is currently building an EGP 7 bn compound in Ain Sokhna that will include three five-star hotels as well as entertainment and commercial complexes, he added. Sunrise Resorts are also building three five-star hotels in Sharm El Sheikh with a total capacity of 800 rooms at a total cost of EGP 1 bn, added El Shaer. The group operates 12 hotels, three of which it has temporarily closed in Hurghada and Sharm El Sheikh due to occupancy rates as low as 40% and 25%, respectively. (Read in Arabic)

    TELECOMS + ICT

    Mobile phone traders threaten to close shops amid reported security crackdownSecurity crackdowns have eased up on mobile phone traders, Al Mal reports, after they threatened to strike between 5-6 April in light of a clampdown on shop owners along Abdul Aziz Street last week over a lack of customs clearance documents, according to DNE. “[After meeting with the head of the Cairo police investigations unit head], we agreed that mobile traders will not be locked up, but instead will be called upon legally if a violation transpires,” said VP of the Cairo’s Chamber of Commerce’s ICT Division Walid Ramadan on Sunday. Ramadan will meet the public funds chief and representatives of the Central Administration for Combating Customs Evasions to put forth a legal framework to organize mobile trading market in Egypt. A number of mobile shops have faced security crackdowns due to the lack of customs clearance documentation for the devices they sell.

    AUTOMOTIVE + TRANSPORTATION

    Thirteen companies bid for Egyptian National Railways consulting tenderThirteen international companies have presented bids for the tender issued by Egyptian National Railways to overhaul the authority’s administration and increase its efficiency. The World Bank will finance the consulting, has conducted studies, and will review all official bids for the position of consultant, sources told Al Borsa. The studies are expected to take eight months to be completed and will begin in June, the source added. (Read in Arabic)

    Nissan leads sales of locally assembled cars with 34.4% market share; bus sales down 16%Nissan has grown its market share in sales of passenger cars assembled in Egypt to 34.4% in January and February, up from 16.5% during the same two-month period in 2015, according the auto market’s information council (AMIC). Hyundai came in second with a 29.8% market share of sales of locally assembled vehicles, followed by Chevrolet, which held a 12.4% market share, Al Mal reports. Meanwhile, bus sales in February fell 16% year-on-year 2,738 units, AMIC figures show, Al Mal reports in a separate story. Amr Nassar, executive director of commercial vehicle outfit MCV, blamed the FX crunch for the decline.

    BANKING + FINANCE

    EFSA to include provisions for SME insurance in the draft Insurance Supervisory ActThe Egyptian Financial Supervisory ity (EFSA) plans to include special provisions that establish guidelines for the insurance of SMEs in the draft Insurance Supervision Act, said EFSA head Sherif Samy. His statements come at workshop on SME insurance hosted in cooperation with the German Agency for International Development. The move is part of EFSA’s  policy to promote greater financial inclusion of SMEs. (Read in Arabic)

    CBE adopts EFSA’s bancassurance regulationsThe CBE has adopted bancassurance regulations allowing commercial banks to contract to sell for up to four insurance companies, according to a CBE statement released on Sunday and picked up by Al Shorouk. As we noted last week, these regulations were adopted and approved by EFSA.

    OTHER BUSINESS NEWS OF NOTE

    Eastern Company projects EGP 1.35 bn in net profit after tax in FY2016-17Eastern Company is expecting to increase its output to around 84 bn cigarettes in FY2016-17 to generate a net profit after tax of EGP 1.35 bn. Chairman Mohamed Othman expects the company to transfer EGP 34 bn to the state, up from EGP 31 bn in FY2015-16, as the company continues to be one of the biggest financiers of the treasury. (Read in Arabic)

    EGYPT POLITICS + ECONOMICS

    Khorshid picks up where Salman left offInvestment Minister Dalia Khorshid promised to better the investment climate through — get ready for it — a better approach to the one-stop investment shop program and by resolving outstanding investor disputes. Khorshid will also work on enhancing coordination between the cabinet’s economic group and the CBE. While her press conference is getting wide play in the national business press, the only specifics she had to add on bringing this investment climate is replace subordinates in the ministry and adapt a slicker PR approach. Khorshid is set to meet with a number of Saudi investors to settle all disputes with them before and prepare for the Saudi King Salman’s visit on Thursday, DNE reports.

    ON YOUR WAY OUT

    Finance Ministry advisor on tax policies Mahmoud Aly has submitted his resignation, sources told Al Masry Al Youm. Aly had assumed the role at the ministry around a year ago. He reportedly believes Finance Minister Amr El Garhy has a sufficient support team with sufficient experience.

    And in the twilight zone that is Cairo’s justice system, a criminal court referred on Sunday TV host Ahmed Moussa and former Justice Minister Ahmed El Zend to trial for insulting former head of the Central Auditing Organization (CAO) Hisham Geneina, Ahram Online writes. The trial is set to start on 4 June. In a January interview on Sada El-Balad with Moussa, El Zend attacked Geneina and ex-head of the Judges Club Zakaria Abdel-Aziz, calling them tools of the Muslim Brotherhood and “working for them like gang members.”

    Oriental Weavers is issuing an EGP 0.50 dividend per share, Reuters reported, as per a bourse statement. The ex-dividend date has not been announced yet.

    A gas tanker overturned in the Gharb District of Alexandria on Sunday causing multiple injuries, Al Shorouk reports. Gharb District Chief Mohammed Fahim told Dream TV on Sunday night that poor road conditions caused the tanker to overturn, while claiming that the driver acted “stupidly”. (Read in Arabic)

    BY THE NUMBERSPowered by

    USD CBE auction (Tuesday, 29 March): 8.78 (unchanged since Wednesday, 16 March)USD parallel market (Sunday, 3 April): 10.05 (-0.05 from Saturday 2 April, Al Mal)

    EGX30 (Sunday): 7,521.20 (-0.05%)Turnover: EGP 613.65 mnEGX 30 year-to-date: +7.35%

    THE MARKET ON SUNDAY: The EGX30 inched down 0.1% on the day. Juhayna was up 0.1% after announcing it was selling its 40% stake in Milky’s while Oriental Weavers was down 1.9% after announcing a cash dividend of EGP 0.50 per share. The index’s top performers were Ezz Steel, Qalaa Holdings, and Arab Cotton Ginning, while the worst performers were Eastern Company, Edita, and Elsaeed Contracting. At a market turnover of EGP 613.7 mn, regional investors were the sole net sellers. Regionally, Saudi’s TASI was down 1.6%, Dubai’s General Index 1.6%, and Abu Dhabi’s General Index 0.7%.

    Foreigners: Net long | EGP + 8.0 mnRegional: Net short | EGP – 23.6 mnDomestic: Net long | EGP + 15.6 mn

    Retail: 80.0% of total trades | 81.6% of buyers | 78.4% of sellersInstitutions: 20.0% of total trades | 18.4% of buyers | 21.6% of sellers

    Foreign: 6.3% of total | 6.9% of buyers | 5.6% of sellersRegional: 7.2% of total | 5.3% of buyers | 9.1% of sellersDomestic: 86.5% of total | 87.8% of buyers | 85.3% of sellers

    WTI: USD 36.39 (-1.09%)Brent: USD 38.37 (-0.78%)Gold: USD 1,221.10 troy ounce (-0.20%)

    TASI: 6,126.12 (-1.56%)ADX: 4,360.19 (-0.69%)DFM: 3,303.23 (-1.56%)KSE Weighted Index: 355.97 (-1.07%)QE: 10,251.97 (-1.20%)MSM: 5,488.93 (+0.39%)

    CALENDAR

    31 March-22 April (Thursday-Friday): The Downtown Contemporary Arts Festival (D-CAF), various locations, Cairo.

    04 April 2016: Saudi Arabia’s King Salman visits Cairo.

    07-10 April 2016 (Thursday-Sunday): Cityscape Egypt Conference, Cairo International Convention Centre, Cairo

    13-16 April 2016 (Wednesday-Saturday): Cafex, Cairo.

    17 April 2016: German economic delegation visits Cairo.

    25 April 2016 (Monday): Sinai Liberation Day (national holiday)

    26-28 April (Tuesday-Thursday): Arabian Hotel Investment Conference, The Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai.

    01 May (Sunday): Easter Holiday Labour Day (national holiday)

    02 May (Monday): Sham El Nessim (national holiday)

    02-03 May (Monday-Tuesday): The Middle East Investment Summit 2016, Ritz-Carlton DIFC, Dubai.

    10 May (Tuesday): Business News Foundation’s Third Annual Energy Conference: Energy and Sustainable Development, InterContinental Hotel Citystars Cairo. Register here.

    16-17 May (Monday-Tuesday): Egyptian-Bahraini committee meets, Cairo.

    25-26 May (Wednesday-Thursday): The Middle East and North Africa Solar Conference and Expo MENASOL 2016, Hyatt Regency, Dubai.

    06 October (Thursday): Armed Forces Day (national holiday)

    27 November 2016 (Sunday): 2016 Cairo ICT Conference Group

    04-06 December 2016 (Sunday-Tuesday): Solar-Tec Conference, Cairo International Convention Centre, Cairo

    Article by ArticleForge

    History of Philosophy.

    Christian Philosophy 54

    The history of philosophy goes back to the very origin of the human race. In all times man has sought to know the cause of the phenomena of which he was witness. Nevertheless, if we except the monuments of Oriental philosophy, to which it is difficult to assign a precise date, authentic works are not older than the sixth century before the Christian era. It is only from this date that we can follow without interruption the progress and succession of philosophical works down the ages. The long intervening period may be divided into three general epochs: the first epoch, that of ancient philosophy, begins with Thales (B.C. 600) and ends with the death of Proclus (A.D. 485). Oriental philosophy, though anterior by some centuries, is included in this epoch; the second, that of the middle age, extends from Boëthius (A.D. 500) to Gerson (1395); the third, that of modern philosophy, begins with the movement of the Renaissance in the fifteenth century.

    Ancient Philosophy. Oriental Philosophy.

    Oriental Philosophy comprises all that is known of the speculations of the human mind in the Orient, and principally in India, China, and Persia. The oldest writings in which we can trace the primitive philosophy of India are the sacred books known as the Vêdas, the compilation of which is attributed to Vyasa about the twelfth century before Christ.

    Pantheism is the basis of the religious system contained in these books, yet it is especially in the Vedanga, a philosophical work also attributed to Vyasa, that it is presented in its greatest metaphysical precision and accepted with its most exaggerated consequences. Ancient India has likewise produced a great number of philosophical works in which the most contradictory systems are in turn exposed. The strangest theories of our days -- materialism, idealism, scepticism, and others -- have their counterpart in the Hindoo philosophy. The rules of reasoning, those of the syllogism in particular, are presented with such precision and detail that we know not whether it is to Greece or to India that the priority of the science of logic belongs. Yet, in spite of this variety of philosophical systems, it is pantheism that predominates in the Hindoo religion and literature, and from it several sects have deduced not only ideal but even moral and practical consequences.

    It is likewise in the Kings, the sacred books of China, that we must seek the first traces of its philosophy. The Kings date back to the remotest antiquity; they contain principles that deviate little from the true primitive traditions, and embody remarkable ideas of God, of man, and of the relations existing between Creator and creature. About the sixth century before the Christian era these books gave rise to two schools of philosophy, which at the same time constitute two religious sects. One is metaphysical, that of Lao-Tseu: his doctrines greatly resemble those of Pythagoras and Plato. The other school, founded by Confucius, is chiefly moral. It is the peculiar character of his doctrine that it reduces all the virtues to filial piety, from which, again, it derives all duties, whether toward family, country, or God Himself. This doctrine, apparently so beautiful, has exerted a fatal influence upon China. By confounding family and country, Confucius has made the Chinese nation a race of children, blindly subject to their sovereign. About the thirteenth century of the Christian era a new school was formed in China, and by this materialistic pantheism was propagated.

    The doctrines of ancient Persia are contained in the writings known as the Zend-Avesta and attributed to Zoroaster. The dominant idea of the Zend-Avesta is dualism; it bases everything in the universe on the antagonism between Ormuzd, the principle of good, and Ahriman, the principle of evil; men are good or bad according as they follow the one or the other these principles.

    Ancient Philosophy. First Period (B.C. 600-400)

    Greek Philosophy may be divided into three periods. The first (B.C. 600-400) extends from Thales to Socrates. It comprises five distinct schools the Ionic, the Italic, the two Eleatic schools, and the school of Sophists. All the philosophers of these different schools proposed to themselves above all else to solve the problem of the origin of things.

    The Ionic school, of which Thales of Miletus (B.C. 587) is the founder, studied the universe from a physical stand-point and began with the observation of phenomena. Thales said that water was the origin of things, that God was the intelligence who together with water forms beings; Anaximander (B.C. 560) derived all things from the slime of the earth; Anaximanes (B.C. 530) assigned the air as their principle; whereas Heraclitus (B.C. 500) asserted that it was fire. According to Anaxagoras (B.C. 475) the primitive elements of bodies are of several different species, but attract one another in proportion as they are like in nature. He returned to the idea of God, which Thales had taught, but his successors had cast into oblivion. Empedocles (B.C. 450) combined all these systems; he admitted four elements, water, earth, air, and fire, and a motive principle to unite and divide them.

    The Italic school was founded by Pythagoras (B.C. 540). He taught that numbers were the principle of all things, and as all numbers begin from unity, he concluded that absolute unity is the first principle. In his doctrine, he did not, like the Ionic school, confine himself to the physical order, but included the moral order and established the subordination of matter to spirit. -- The principal disciples of Pythagoras were Timaeus of Locris, Ocellus of Lucania, and Archytas of Tarentum.

    The two schools of Elea followed the steps of the Ionic and the Italic school. One of these, the atomistic, had for its leaders Leucippus and Democritus (B.C. 590), who explained everything by eternal atoms infinite in number. The other, the metaphysical school, had three chief representatives: Xenophanes (B.C. 536), Parmenides (B.C. 465), and Zeno of Elea (B.C. 450), who denied finite realities and professed the most formal pantheism.

    The last school is that of the Sophists, the most celebrated of whom are Gorgias (B.C. 430), and Protagoras (B.C. 422). These sceptics, in presence of the contradictions of the philosophers who had preceded them, concluded that there was no absolute truth and that man could not arrive at any certain knowledge.

    Second Period (B.C. 400-200).

    In the fourth century before Christ, Socrates (B.C. 899) opened a new era of philosophy. Rejecting the speculations and systems of preceding schools, he aimed to give philosophy a practical end, and applied himself to the study of man and of the moral world. He taught that the soul contains the germs of truth, but so choked up by the vain opinions to which the passions give birth, that for their development it is necessary to begin by freeing it from these false notions. And such was the method adopted by Socrates in teaching, and since called Socratic induction.

    Immediately after Socrates come four schools of little importance: 1, The Cynical school, founded by Antisthenes (B.C. 380), which placed virtue in a haughty independence of external things. -- Diogenes (B.C. 324) was the most complete representative of this school; 2, The Cyrenaic school, founded by Aristippus (B.C. 380), which taught that the end of life consists in the pleasures of sense; 3, The Sceptical school, founded by Pyrrho (B.C. 288), who referred all philosophy to virtue, inferred the inutility of science, and sought to prove its impossibility; 4, The Megaric school, founded by Euclid (B.C. 400), whose philosophy was the doctrine of Xenophanes modified by Socratic influence.

    These schools had little power; but not so the four great schools that produced the philosophic development promoted by Socrates: 1, The school of Plato, or the Academy; 2, The school of Aristotle, or the Lyceum; 3, The school of Epicurus; 4, The school of Zeno, or the Portico.

    Plato (B.C. 388) is one of the greatest geniuses of antiquity. In his numerous works he has developed great and sublime truths whenever he takes the traditional beliefs for his basis, but he falls into error when he accepts no other guide than his own reason. Thus he has erred upon most of the great questions of philosophy: on the origin of ideas, on the criteria of certitude, on the nature of the union between soul and body, on the unity of the soul, its origin and destiny. The principal writings of Plato are: Crito, on the duty of the citizen; Phaedo, on immortality; the First Alcibiades, on the nature of man; the Second Alcibiades, on prayer; Gorgias, on the end of rhetoric and of justice; Protagoras, on sophists; the Republic, on the plan of an ideal city; and the Laws. As to form, the works of Plato display an admirable perfection; it is through this especially that the philosopher has exercised so profound and extensive an influence both in ancient and in modern times.

    Aristotle of Stagyra (B.C. 331), a disciple of Plato, surpassed his master in the depth and extent of his knowledge. Metaphysics and natural history, logic and physics, and poetry, he has embraced all. The theory of the syllogism comes from him, and has received from him a complete exposition. His works on physics and natural history were for centuries a recognized authority. On the nature of bodies, on the soul and its faculties, on ideas, he has taught doctrines that are full of deep truths and were the basis of the great labors of the Scholastic philosophers. Nevertheless, he has fallen into very grave errors, especially in morals and politics, for he was buried in the darkness of paganism. -- Of the Peripatetics, or disciples of Aristotle, the chief are Theophrastus (B.C. 322) and Straton (B.C. 289).

    Epicurus (B.C. 309) professed the atomistic doctrine of Democritus. Egoism and skilfully calculated pleasures -- such is the summary of his morality, which all ages have justly branded with disgrace. When introduced into the Roman empire, Epicureanism found an eloquent interpreter in the poet Lucretius (B.C. 50), who contributed not a little to propagate its tenets.

    Zeno (B.C. 300), the founder of Stoicism, taught a doctrine which, in its physical theories, touched on Epicureanism, and, in its morals, on Platonism. In his opinion there is nothing but body; everything is subject to the laws of fatality; all cognition is derived from sensation. As to ethics, justice should be the sole motive of man's actions; to be truly wise, one must repress all the emotions of the soul; justice is the only good, injustice is the only evil; sickness and death are neither good nor evil. From this it is evident that Stoicism is contradictory in its principles and in its morality. -- The principal Stoics were Chrysippus (B.C. 230); and later Seneca (B.C. 30), Epictetus (B.C. 50), and the emperor Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161).

    The school founded by Plato had been styled the Academy. By the name of the Old Academy that epoch has been designated during which Plato's disciples respected his doctrines; by that of the Second or Middle Academy, the epoch that witnessed the first reform of Plato's teaching; and by that of the New Academy, the epoch in which a second reform was attempted. -- Arcesilas (B.C. 260) was the founder of the Middle Academy: he reduced all human certitude to probability under the name of acatalepsy. -- Carneades (B.C. 180) founded the New Academy. According to him, objective truth exists, but man is incapable of attaining anything beyond a more or less probable conjecture. The principles of the New Academy were spread in the Roman world, and found their most illustrious exponent in Cicero (B.C. 43), who formulated no system of his own, but faithfully reproduced the doctrines of the Greek philosophy. In his philosophical writings he has treated all the great questions, sometimes with positiveness, and again with doubt.

    About this same epoch there was a quasi-resurrection of the old school of Pyrrho; doubt was again systematized and presented as the necessary term of all philosophic labors. -- AEnesidemus (B.C. 20) professed a positive and rigorously formulated scepticism. But it was Sextus Empiricus (A.D. 180) who, of the ancients, exposed scepticism with most science and extensiveness; he attacked all the doctrines of his predecessors and strove to convict them of uncertainty.

    Third Period (A.D. ">200-500).

    The third period of ancient philosophy begins with Christianity and ends with the invasion of the barbarians. It may be divided into three distinct schools 1, The Gnostic school; 2, The Neoplatonic school; and 3, The Christian school.

    Gnosticism is a mixture of Oriental doctrines and Christian dogmas; it gave birth to divers systems, all of which, however, may be reduced to two, pantheism and dualism. Pantheism is seen in the systems of Apelles (150), Valentinus (160), and Carpocrates (170). The speculations of Saturninus (120), of Bardesanes (160), and of Basilides (130), spring from the principle of dualism. The Gnostic ideas developed by these systems concurred to produce the doctrine of Manes (274) or Manicheism, a combination of Persian dualism and Hindoo pantheism with the dogmas of Christianity: this doctrine exercised a powerful influence for several centuries. Eventually the Gnostic systems were transformed, and their principles became the basis of various heresies, such as Arianism, Nestorianism, and Eutychianism.

    The Neoplatonic school, called also the school of Alexandria, from the name of the city which was its chief asylum, had for its leading professors: Ammonius Saccas (200), Plotinus (245), Porphyry (290), Jamblicus (300), Hierocles (400), and Proclus (450). These philosophers undertook to unite Oriental and Greek philosophy. A like attempt had been made in the first century by Jewish philosophers, among others by Philo (40); but, properly speaking, the head of the Neoplatonic school was Plotinus. These Alexandrians devoted themselves for the most part to occult practices of theurgy; they were the sworn enemies of Christianity, from which, however, they borrowed not a little.

    The principle Christian philosophers of the first centuries are: St. Denis the Areopagite (95), St. Justin (160), St. Irenaeus (200), Athenagoras (200), Tertullian (240), Clement of Alexandria (210), Origen (250), Lactantius (320), and St. Augustine (430). These writers, grounding their teachings on the dogmas of religion, attained to the highest and best founded speculations. Their ideas, even in purely philosophical matters, far excel all the conceptions of their predecessors among the philosophers. Moreover, they gave a practical end to their vast labors, for, on the one hand, they combated the false doctrines of the pagan and heretical philosophers; and on the other, they always contemplated science in its relation to virtue. Most of them had been disciples of the Greek philosophy; they borrowed thence whatever was true, and strove to apply it to the truths of religion. Their writings have served as a preparation and groundwork for the labors of Christian philosophy.

    Mediaeval Philosophy. First Period (6th to 9th Century).

    The disordered state of society which followed the invasions of the barbarians interrupted the great philosophic movement of the first ages of Christianity. From the sixth to the ninth century there were few philosophers: in the West, Boëthius (525), Cassiodorus (575), Claudian Mamertus (474), Isidore of Seville (636), and Bede (735); in the East, John Philoponus (650), and especially St. John Damascene (754). Boëthius forms the link between ancient and mediaeval philosophy. He sought to reconcile whatever was true in the Greek philosophers with the dogmas of Christianity. He became a high authority for the following centuries; his writings, and among others his book On the Consolation of Philosophy, were for a long period used in the school-room. St. John Damascene, like Boëthius, united the study of philosophy to that of theology; at a later date his works also had great credit in the schools of the East.

    Second Period (9th to 13th Century). ARABIAN PHILOSOPHY.

    Under the reign of the caliphs Haroun-al-Raschid and Al-Mamoun, the Arabs began to cultivate the science of philosophy. The principal masterpieces of Greece were translated into their tongue; the books of Aristotle in particular were much studied. -- The most ancient of the Arabian philosophers is Alkendi (800), who merely commented upon Aristotle. Al-Farabi, who lived about a century later, made logic the principal object of his labors. -- In the tenth century appeared Avicenna, who was long counted in the first rank of the masters of medicine, and is still regarded by the Orientals as one of their chief philosophers. He commented on the logic and metaphysics of Aristotle, but considerably modified several of the Stagyrite's important theories. -- Al-Gazel, who lived in the eleventh century, employed his entire resources in dialectics to destroy all systems of philosophy; he held that one could escape doubt only by having recourse to the revelation of the Koran. In the East the attempt of Al-Gazel inflicted a blow on philosophy from which it could not recover. But this was the very time when it was cultivated with more eagerness than ever in the Academies which the caliphs had founded in most of the cities subject to the Saracens. Far different from Al-Gazel was Avempace (1138), a native of Saragossa, who taught that philosophic speculation was the sole means by which man could know himself; his doctrine tended to exclude the supernatural. Avempace had among his disciples Thofaïl (1185), whose system is pantheism. -- But of all the philosophers that Islamism has given to Spain, the most celebrated is unquestionably Averrhoës (1168). He made extensive commentaries on all the works of Aristotle. He composed, besides, several original treatises, of which the substance is Peripateticism, but carried to consequences which Aristotle would have disclaimed. In the opinion of Averrhoës, there is none but a universal intelligence, in which all intelligent beings share without having an intelligence of their own. By this and other doctrines he opened the way to pantheism, so that even the Mussulmans condemned his works. Some of his Peripatetic ideas were developed by a disciple of his, Moses Maimonides (1209), a Jewish philosopher and the greatest light of the Hebrew people since the preaching of the Gospel. A century previous, another Jew, Avicebron, also gained great renown as a phi1osopher; he taught doctrines whose consequences were pantheistic.

    THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE SCHOOLS BEFORE ST. THOMAS.

    With Charlemagne the culture of the sciences and literature was begun anew with ardor in the West. Alcuin (804) was the principal instrument in the hands of the emperor to create new schools and make them prosper. Under Charles the Bald, Scotus Erigena (886) became famous; he was of Irish birth, but passed the greater part of his life in France. His doctrines are pantheistic, and he labored in vain to reconcile them with the Christian dogmas. About the middle of the eleventh century great philosophic works began to be published. St. Anselm (1033-1109) wrote his two treatises, the Monologium and the Prosologium, in which, with no aid but reason, he rose to the highest conceptions of the divine essence.

    It was at this epoch that philosophy was brought back to a problem with which it had formerly been engaged, the problem of universals, of genera and species. Plato had thought that universals had an existence in themselves apart from particular individuals; Aristotle had regarded them as concepts of the intellect corresponding to the essences contained in the existing entities; however, he did not present his opinion with sufficient clearness, and it may receive different interpretations. Toward the end of the eleventh century, Roscelin, a canon of Compiègne, revived the question. He maintained that the universals contained in generic and specific ideas were mere words and consisted in names only: hence the designation of nominalism given to his theory. St. Anselm was one of his most ardent adversaries, and victoriously combated the beterodox consequences which Roscelin drew from his system. William of Champeaux (1121) considered the universals as essences common to several individuals, which were, therefore, distinguished from one another by merely accidental differences. This doctrine, which gave an objective reality to universals as such, was called ultra-realism. Abelard (1142) attacked the theory of his former teacher, William of Champeaux, and invented a third system, conceptualism, which regarded universals as mere concepts of the mind, and was, after all, only disguised nominalism. Nominalism and conceptualism tended to serious errors, even to atheism and materialism; hence they were generally rejected by the Catholic schools. As to realism, it is of two kinds: one considers the essence as having an individual subsistence apart from the mind and receiving its universality in the intellect; the other regards the essence as possessing an abstracted and universal reality apart from any mental operation. The former is moderate realism, and was accepted and defended by St. Anselm and the other great philosophers of the schools; the latter is ultra-realism, which was sustained by several, among others by Gilbert of Porrée (1154), bishop of Poitiers, and has been solemnly condemned by the Church.

    One of those who shone with greatest lustre in these philosophic disputatious was Peter Lombard (1159). His chief work is the book entitled The Master of the Sentences, in which he has collected the sentiments of the Fathers on the principal points of theology and philosophy. This book exerted a powerful influence; it was for a long period a text-book which the professors explained in their schools.

    At this epoch the dissemination of the complete works of Aristotle within the universities, which till then had known them only in part, and the appearance of the Arabian philosophy, gave a new impulse to philosophic studies. Unfortunately the ardor which then carried minds away, and the enthusiasm for Aristotle and his Arabian commentators which then fired them, weakened religious faith and submission to the authority of the Church. Amaury of Chartres (1209) and David of Dinant (1220) taught, the one, idealistic pantheism, the other, materialistic pantheism, and thus drew upon themselves the anathemas of the Church. But while the works of Aristotle and the Arabian philosophers brought trouble into the schools, two religious orders sprang up destined to furnish illustrious defenders of the truth. The Franciscan Alexander of Hales (1245) and the Dominican Albert the Great (1280) became celebrated as much by the depth and extent of their learning as by the orthodoxy of their teaching. Their works, together with those of William of Auvergne (1248), bishop of Paris, were a preparation for the immortal masterpieces to be produced by Bonaventure and Thomas of Aquin.

    APOGEE OF THE SCHOLASTIC PHILOSOPHY (13TH CENTURY).

    Around William of Auvergne, Alexander of Hales, and Albert the Great was grouped a great number of illustrious philosophers and theologians, as Vincent of Beauvais (1264), whose Speculum Majus (General Mirror) was a kind of encyclopaedia of all the sciences; Henry of Ghent (1295), surnamed the "Solemn Doctor," from the authority of his doctrines; and Roger Bacon (1294), whose vast intellect foresaw some of the most important discoveries of modern science. But among all these, two men became especially famous in the thirteenth century; they soared by their genius above all their contemporaries; they are St. Bonaventure and St. Thomas of Aquin.

    St. Bonaventure was born in Tuscany in 1221. He entered the order of Franciscans and studied at Paris under Alexander of Hales; by his sanctity, as well as by his science, he merited to become the general of his order. He was made bishop and cardinal by Gregory X., and assisted at the second council of Lyons, where he died in 1274. St. Bonaventure's principal philosophic work is his commentary on The Master of the Sentences. He teaches that all science comes from God and should lead to God; therefore he makes all the cognitions of reason concur to the service of the divine science, and in all things he seeks the hidden element by which they are referred to God; hence the elevation and sublimity to be remarked in his writings, and that have won for him the surname of "Seraphic Doctor."

    His rival in learning was St. Thomas of Aquin, surnamed the "Angel of the Schools." He was born in the kingdom of Naples in 1227, and embraced the religious life in the order of St. Dominic. After studying philosophy and theology at Bologna under Albert the Great, he followed him to Paris, where he subsequently taught with great distinction. He died in a monastery of Italy in 1274. His philosophic ideas are embodied chiefly in the Theological Sum, the Sum against the Gentiles, the Commentaries on all the parts of Aristotle's philosophy, and several special treatises on questions of metaphysics and morals. Pope John XXII. declared that St. Thomas of Aquin diffused more light in the Church than all the other doctors together. In fact, in his numerous works are to be found arguments to defend all truths and to combat all errors. Hence they have at all times possessed the greatest authority in the schools and among the learned, and the Theological Sum merited a place on the same table with the Bible at the Council of Trent. By his vigorous attacks on the Arabian philosophy, St. Thomas destroyed its credit and reduced it to complete impotence. He took from Aristotle whatever was trne, refuted his errors, rectified what was defective and incomplete; by thus enlisting the philosophy of the Stagyrite in the defence of the truth, he put an end to the pernicious influence which it had long exercised in the schools. By a luminous distinction he cleared up the difficult problem of universals. He showed that the essence has a different manner of being according to whether it is considered as having a real existence or as having an ideal existence, and thus he avoided the error of both nominalists and realists. He threw light upon the most difficult questions of metaphysics; and his doctrines on God, the nature of spirits, the composition of bodies, the origin of ideas, the rights and duties of man, have even to this day lost none of their authority. Moreover, it is from St. Thomas of Aquin that philosophers as well as theologians most frequently borrow their arguments for the defence of truth.

    Third Period (14th and 15th Centuries). DECLINE OF SCHOLASTIC PHILOSOPHY.

    The teaching of St. Thomas was continued by his disciples, among others by Egidio Colonna (1316). But in the face of this body of doctrine, which had its principal defenders in the Dominican order, there arose another in the Franciscan order whose solutions differed on several points. Its founder was Duns Scotus (1308), called the "Subtle Doctor," whose numerous works give proof of his remarkable power and his great subtility in dialectics. But this subtility was nowhere carried further than in the Combinatory Art of Raymond Lully (1315), who pretended that by logical procedures a mechanical means is given to the intellect for the solution of all questions.

    While Durand de Saint-Pourçain (1334) appeared in the order of St. Dominic as the adversary of St. Thomas, William Ockham (1347) among the Franciscans opposed both St. Thomas and Duns Scotus, and revived the nominalism of Roscelin, in which action he was followed by John Buridan (1360) and Peter d'Ailly (1420). Thus it happened that lively discussions were raised in the universities, and they led to such errors that many a time the Holy See was obliged to interfere.

    On the decline of scholasticism several philosophers made a name for themselves by remarkable works; among them should be noted the chancellor Gerson (1429), who in some of his writings restored intuitive and mystic philosophy.

    Modern Philosophy. 1. First Period (End of 15th, and 16th Century). EPOCH OF TRANSITION.

    At the end of the fifteenth century, and during the sixteenth, many writings were published relating to philosophy without strictly constituting a system. The Greeks, Theodore of Gaza (1478), George of Trebizonde (1486), and Cardinal Bessarion (1472), published commentaries on the books of the ancient philosophers; Angelo Poliziano (1474) in Italy, Ulric von Hutten (1523) and Erasmus (1536) in Germany, attacked the Scholastic philosophy; Marsilio Ficino (1499), the Florentine, became the panegyrist of Plato; Pico della Mirandola (1494) in Italy, and Reuchlin (1522) in Germany, taught doctrines that were a mixture of theology and cabalistic ideas.

    Yet some philosophers gave a systematic form to their conceptions. Cardinal Nicholas de Cusa (1464) distinguished himself by his depth and originality. He restored certain Pythagorean ideas to honor and anticipated the exposition of the Copernican system of the earth's motion. Paracelsus (1541) taught a kind of illuminism which was subsequently professed by Van Helmont (1664) and Boehme (1625). All three derived the science of the physical world from theosophy. Telesio (1588), on the contrary, excluded God from his theory of the world. Thomas Campanella (1639) was one of Bacon's precursors, and explained the whole man by the faculty of sensation. Pomponazzi, or Pomponatus (1526), taught among other errors that the soul is mortal and destitute of all liberty. Jerome Cardano (1576) became noted by his most extravagant doctrines. Giordano Bruno (1600) professed a pantheistic system and prepared the way for Spinoza; he regarded the world as an infinite organism, of which God was the soul. Vanini (1619) was burned at Toulouse as an atheist. Peter Ramus (1572) undertook a reform of logic, and combated to the last extremity the philosophy of Aristotle. Montaigne (1592) regarded the reason of man as naturally incapable of arriving at certitude; in this he was in part followed by his disciple Charron (1603).

    2. Second Period. PHILOSOPHY OF BACON, DESCARTES, AND LEIBNITZ.

    Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, was born at London in 1561. He played an important part in the affairs of his country and was made baron of Verulam by James I. He died in 1626. His principal work is Novum Organum Scientiarum. In this work he assails the philosophy of Aristotle, and seeks to replace it by a new system. After a criticism of the syllogism, he gives a classification of the sources of errors, dividing them into four categories, which in his own quaint language he designates as idols of the tribe, the prejudices common to all men; idols of the den, individual prejudices; idols of the market-place, prejudices due to language and the commerce of men; and idols of the theatre, prejudices due to the authority of masters. Bacon then assigns a practical end to science; he lays down the laws of experimentation, and gives the method of observation and induction as the means of progress in the sciences. The soul of Bacon's philosophy is the principle that sensations are the only constituent in the formation of human cognitions. This principle, developed by his disciples, was destined gradually to insure the triumph of materialistic doctrines.

    Descartes was born in 1596 at La Haye, in Touraine. He at first embraced the military state; then, after travelling in several countries of Europe, he withdrew to Holland, where he devoted himself exclusively to works, the plan of which he had already conceived. He made important discoveries in physics and mathematics. In philosophy he desired to effect a reform, and he made a vigorous attack on the theories of Aristotle. Having drawn persecution upon himself by his doctrines, he sought refuge with Queen Christina, at Stockholm, where he died in 1650. His principal philosophical work is the Discourse on Method. It contains six parts. The first comprises his criticism of the science handed down by the schools. In the second, after proclaiming the insufficiency of the syllogism, he formulates his method, which he reduces to the famous four rules: 1, Accept as true only what is evidently such; 2, Divide every question into as many parts as possible; 3, Proceed from the easy to the difficult, from the simple to the composite; 4, In enumerations take care to omit nothing. These rules have been much praised for depth and originality, but they are pointed out by nature, and were known and put in practice long before Descartes published his Discourse, In the third part, while awaiting the solutions which his reason was to furnish him, he makes provisional rules of thought and conduct. In the fourth part, he rejects by the methodical doubt all his previous opinions, and formulates the celebrated enthymeme: I think, therefore I am, on which he pretends to raise the structure of science, In the fifth part, he describes the leading ideas in his system of cosmology; and in the sixth, he indicates by what means the sciences may effect new progress. In this discourse, the value of which has been greatly exaggerated, and also in his other works of philosophy, Descartes teaches many errors, which have been made the foundation of most of the modern false systems. And so, while aiming to create a new philosophy, he has fallen into error on the great questions of certitude, of substance, of the union between soul and body, and others of equal importance. It is to be remarked, however, that Descartes did not shape his conduct by these systems, for he showed himself a good Christian, though his doctrines have been the occasion of bitter attacks upon the Church.

    Leibnitz was born at Leipsic in 1648. His vast intellect embraced all the sciences. In mathematics he established the basis of infinitesimal calculus, and he wrote extensively on history, constitutional law, philosophy, and theology. He died in 1716. His principal philosophical works are his Essays on Theodicy and his New Essays on the Human Understanding. Leibnitz holds that all substances, even material, are forces; that matter has its principle in simple and irreducible forces, perfectly analogous to the simple and irreducible forces that constitute spirits: these forces he calls monads. The monads cannot act upon one another; however, they correspond exactly in their evolutions in virtue of a harmony pre-established by God. In theodicy, he professes optimism, and be lieves that this world is the best possible.

    3. The Schools of Bacon, Descartes, and Leibnitz.

    The principal disciples of Bacon's school are: Hobbes, Gassendi, Locke, Condillac, Helvetius, d'Holbach, and Hume. Hobbes (1679) in his works, and more particularly in the Leviathan, denies the existence of spirits, reduces the end of man to pleasure, and in politics acknowledges no rights but those of power and force. Gassendi (1655) is celebrated on account of the apology which he makes in various works for the philosophy of Epicurus. -- Locke (1704), in his Essay on the Human Understanding, recognizes two sources of ideas: sensation, which furnishes all the elements, and reflection, which forms from them various composites; he asserts that it is impossible to demonstrate the spirituality of the soul, and that perhaps matter is capable of thought. -- Condillac (1780) develops the theories of Locke in his Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge and in his Treatise on Sensation. He takes away reflection as a source of ideas and admits only sensation. He explains all the operations of the soul by transformed sensations. From his doctrines it is easy to deduce the negation of liberty, of the soul, and of the existence of God -- in a word, scepticism. -- Helvetius (1771) applied the principles of sensism to morals, and reduced virtue to self-interest. D'Holbach (1789) in his System of Nature supported the opinion that only material beings exist. -- Hume (1776) drew from sensism a complete system of scepticism.

    The principal philosophers of Descartes' school are: Malebranche. Arnauld, Bossuet, Fénelon, Pascal Berkeley, and Spinoza. The most noted works of Malebranche (1715) are the Search for Truth, the Christian and Metaphysical Meditations, and the Conversations on Metaphysics. In these he proves himself a superior writer and at times a profound philosopher, but at the same time he teaches erroneous systems which have justly discredited his works. For instance, it is his theory that we see all in God, even the material world; that the soul is only the occasional cause of the movements of the body. His philosophy tends to idealism and contains the germs of pantheism. -- Antoine Arnauld (1694) made a great name by his Art of Thinking, commonly known as the Port-Royal Logic, which he wrote in a week with Nicole (1695), each writing half. -- Bossuet (1704) has left but one work that treats specially of philosophy, the Treatise on the Knowledge of God and Oneself, in which he summarizes what is most useful in the science of God and of the soul. -- Fénelon (1715) wrote the Demonstration of the Existence of God, in which he displays his great depth and originality: in the first part, he proves the existence of God by final causes; in the second, he deduces it from the idea of the infinite. -- Pascal (1662), in his Thoughts, aims alternately to exalt and to humble man at the sight of his greatness and his miseries. -- Berkeley (1753), in the attempt to destroy materialism, falls into an opposite excess; he denies the existence of the material world and sinks into complete idealism. -- Spinoza (1677), in his Ethics, revives materialistic pantheism. He gives an exposition of his system according to the geometrical method, and forms his theories into a closely linked chain of reasoning, but he begins with an unsound principle. It is the false definition of substance given by Descartes, "Substance is that which exists by itself (par soi)." In his work, Spinoza (1677) sets himself to demonstrate: 1, That there is but one substance, the Infinite Being; 2, That all finite beings are only modes or attributes of this Infinite Substance. The famous sceptic Bayle (1706) may also be placed in the school of Descartes; in his Critical Dictionary he impugns the certainty of all human knowledge.

    The influence of the philosophy of Leibnitz was felt by nearly all the German schools of his epoch, and inclined them to idealism. Thomasius and Wolf are its leading exponents. The doctrine of Thomasius (1655) presents a singular combination of sensism and mysticism. Wolf (1764) was the continuator of Leibnitz, whose doctrines he coördinated into one great system of philosophy.

    4. The Scotch School and the German School.

    Even in England the doctrines of Hobbes and Locke had encountered marked opposition. Hutcheson (1747) strove to banish sensism from the domain of morality, though he allowed it to remain as the basis of psychology. But Reid (1710-1796) attacked it as a false theory not only of morality, but likewise of the human mind. He taught for a long period in the University of Glasgow, in Scotland, and he is regarded as the founder of the Scotch school. His chief work is the Essay on the Intellectual Powers of Man. He there demonstrates with much justice and sagacity the insufficiency of sensation to explain all psychological phenomena, but he also inculcates some errors on method, certitude, the faculties of the soul, etc. One of the special characteristics of his philosophy is his doctrine of instinctive judgments, the truth of which, though not intellectually perceived is necessarily to be admitted under pain of drifting into scepticism. Dugald Stewart (1828), a pupil of Reid's, continued in his teaching and his works to apply the method of his master. He distinguished himself by his spirit of observation in the study of the phenomena of the human mind.

    Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804) was the founder of the German school. He taught for many years at Koenigsberg. The most celebrated of his works is the Critique of Pure Reason, wherein he establishes the principles of the philosophical reform which he had begun. Although he proposed to combat scepticism, yet in his works he lays the foundations of a complete scepticism and of the most monstrous errors; but he is inconsistent with his system and admits the great truths of the existence of God, the liberty and immortality of the soul.{1} The chief philosophers connected with his school are Fichte (1814), Schelling (1854), and Hegel (1831); all three, pushing the ideas of their master to their utmost limit, drew the logical consequence of an idealistic pantheism which numbers many adherents in Germany to-day.{2}

    5. Present Schools in France.

    Besides the German school, strictly so called, there are many schools at present: 1, The eclectic rationalistic; 2, The progressive; 3, The positivistic and materialistic; 4, The ontologistic; 5, The traditionalistic; 6, The Thomistic. The founder of eclecticism is Victor Cousin (1866). Among those who prepared the way for him are Laromiguière (1837), Maine de Biran (1824), and Royer Collard (1825). His principal disciples are Jouffroy (1842) and Damiron (1864). The eclectics adopt in general spiritualistic doctrines, but they reject the supernatural and recognize no authority but that of reason. -- The progressive school is so called because it professes to believe in indefinite progress. Its leaders are La Mennais (1854) and Pierre Leroux (1871), whose tenets lead to pantheism. To this school may be referred the humanitarian and socialist systems of Fourier (1837), Saint-Simon (1825), and others, whose utopian schemes have excited the contempt of all sensible persons. The positivistic and materialistic school is chiefly represented by Auguste Comte (1857), Littré (1881), and Taine (b. 1828), who have striven, but in vain, to make the progress of modern science subservient to the defence of the degrading doctrines of materialism. -- The ontologistic school, renewing the error of Malebranche, has overlooked the distance that separates man from God, and teaches that all our ideas are but partial intuitions of God. This error, which logically ends in pantheism, has been specially inculcated by Gioberti (1852) and Rosmini (1855). -- The traditionalistic school exaggerates the feebleness of human reason, in the belief that the authority of tradition and revelation is strengthened thereby; it has exposed itself to the attacks of incredulity and atheism, which it aimed to combat. Its leaders were De Bonald (1840), La Mennais (before his fall), and Ventura (1861).

    6. Philosophy in England and America.

    The great impetus given to the study of the natural sciences in this century has led many philosophers, so called, to give undue importance to the methods of observation and experiment, and even to apply them to the solution of some of the gravest questions in philosophy. Thus, "Mill and his followers drag down all a priori laws to the level of the a posteriori, or rather deny the existence of the a priori laws at all."{3} The manifold errors of English philosophy to-day may be traced more or less directly to this deplorable confusion of principles, In the domain of logic, the conceptualism of Sir W. Hamilton and the nominalism of John Stuart Mill are the result of a failure to discriminate between the intellectual idea and the sensible image in the imagination. Both men have attacked the fundamental principles of knowledge: Hamilton asserts that not the principle of contradiction, but the principle of identity, which he formulates as A is A, is the first of all; Mill declares that the principle of contradiction is "one of our first and most familiar generalizations from experience," and reduces the principle of causation to "invariable and unconditioned antecedence." In psychology empiricism prevails and is supported by Mill, Lewes, Spencer, and Bain, in England; by Draper and Fiske, in America. Now it takes the form of positivism, and, as its name indicates, accepts as positive only what is attested by scientific observation and experiment. Of this school George H. Lewes is the exponent in England. Again, it becomes evolutionism and teaches that "all material and spiritual substances are but force, or a collection of correlated forces." Herbert Spencer is the father of this system; with him Darwin and Huxley may be associated. In ethics and politics the same spirit is at work, as may be seen in the utilitarianism of Mill, the moral system of Herbert Spencer, and the religion of humanity inculcated by the school of Comte. As for general metaphysics, it is all but absolutely rejected as being a series of unintelligible, unprofitable, and often unmeaning speculations. Agnosticism is but the negative side of positivism, for it defines that "the ultimate cause and the essential nature of things are unknowable, or at least unknown" -- a sad commentary on the enlightenment of a Huxley and a Romanes, who profess such ignorance of what it most intimately concerns man to know. The German transcendental school has also a following in England and America.

    Since the condemnation of ontologism and traditionalism by the Church, the Thomistic school alone remains among Catholic philosophers. This school, which has never wanted illustrious representatives in Catholic universities, counts among its prominent supporters, Sanseverino (1873), Kleutgen (1883), Liberatore (1893), Gonzalez, and Cardinal Zigliara (1893). By their learned works, these philosophers and their disciples have repulsed the attacks of error and restored to honor the grand Scholastic philosophy, justly styled Christian or Catholic, because as a course it has been praised, encouraged, and, it may be said, sanctioned by the Church herself, the infallible guardian of truth.

    {1} That is, as postulates of practical reason and because of practical necessity; but he affirms that they are unattainable by theoretical or speculative reason.

    {2} From the denial of philosophic certitude, Strauss went a step farther and denied the historic certitude of the books of the Bible. In his Life of Jesus (1835) he asserts that Christ is but a myth, his Gospel but a bundle of myths, embellished by poetic imagination called miracles. It is from him that Rénan has borrowed most of his blasphemies

    {3} Logic, Stonyhurst Series, p. 387.

    Article by ArticleForge

    ACOM Adds New Workflow Features to EZCM

    ACOM Adds New Workflow Features to EZCM

    May 4, 2010

    by Alex Woodie

    ACOM Solutions last week unveiled a new release of EZContent Manager (EZCM), its Windows-based content management and workflow solution that organizations can use to adopt paper-less processing. New features in version 3.1 should make it easier for users to see items within the workflow that require their attention. This release also brings close integration with Sage accounting systems.

    ACOM bills EZCM as an affordable content management offering that organizations--including a good number of System i shops, who are the product's primarily users--can use to not only help eliminate paper-based processes, but drive greater efficiency by enabling employees to collaborate in accounting, such as accounts payable and accounts receivable.

    The new release of EZCM contains new features that should help users of Sage MAS 90200500 products speed payment processes and eliminate redundant paper work. According to ACOM product manager Angela Doolitle, a new module in EZCM will replace certain tasks within the Sage products.

    "Once the user has scanned an invoice into EZCM, shehe can pull up the code table, find and apply as many codes as needed, apply the corresponding amounts, and electronically route the AP expense invoice for approval, all within the EZCM Process Manager workflow engine,' Doolittle states. "When the electronic invoice approvals are complete, EZCM exports the data to the Sage MAS ERP for billing. The whole operation is virtually seamless."

    This functionality is currently only available in Sage ERP products, but it will be enabled for other ERP products in the future, ACOM says. A high percentage of ACOM's customers utilize ERP products that run on the System i server.

    ACOM added several other enhancements, including new workflow processes that allow customers to fine-tune their conditional models based on factors such as the particular department involved, whether the invoice is based on a purchase order, and other factors.

    EZCM users will be able see work items that demand their attention thanks to the new "assigned to me" filter in their EZCM screens. Users and managers are presented with workflow streams that show them tasks, as well as all pending and completed tasks.

    STORIES

    ACOM Streamlines Access to Content in EZCM and SharePoint

    ACOM Bolsters Security of Content Management System

    ACOM Adds 'Sticky Note' Functionality to Content Manager

    ACOM Unveils EZCapture Front-End for Content Management System

    ACOM Improves Web-Based Document Management Solution

    ACOM Expands Content Manager with New Search, Blackberry Option

    ACOM To Launch No-Frills Content Management System

                         Post this story to del.icio.us                Post this story to Digg     Post this story to Slashdot

    Article by ArticleForge

    Top 10 Certifications For 2010

    1. Network+ Certification 20072009: CompTIA’s Network+ certification is intended to certify networking technicians with knowledge in the networking domain. It has consistently been a high-in-demand certification in the networking sector.

    Targeted job roles: Network Administrator, System Administrator or Network Technician

    Exams:

    N10-004 – CompTIA Network+ (2009 Edition)

    For more information on this exam please visit Network+ Certification 20072009

    2. Security+ Certification: CompTIA’s Security+ certification is one of the most popular exams focusing on information security. Security continues to be an important concern in the IT industry. The significance of this sector grows day by day. There is no specific pre-requisite for CompTIA’s Security+ certification, although CompTIA recommends you have at least two years of experience in network support or administration. It is currently the hottest certification provided by CompTIA in the security domain. It is very likely to continue being a sought after certification for those who wishto build their career in security management.

    Targeted job roles: Network Administrator, Security Specialist or Network Technician

    Exams:

    SY0-201 – CompTIA Security+ (2008 Edition)

    For more information on this exam please visit Security+ Certification

    3. MCTS Windows 7: Windows 7, Configuration certification is the latest certification on Windows 7 technology. This certification is likely to be in great demand, as Windows 7 is adopted more widely. It has been designed for professionals who have a thorough knowledge in installing, managing and configuring Windows 7 including new features such as security, network, and applications. We predict it will be in high demand for those who wants to build their career in Windows 7 and related technologies.

    Targeted job roles: System Administrators, Network Administrators, or Technical Support Specialists

    Exams:

    70-680 – MCTS: Windows 7, Configuring

    For more information on this exam please visit Windows 7, Configuration Certification

    4. Adobe Certified Expert on Photoshop: Adobe’s ACE Photoshop CS is an entry-level certification for Adobe Photoshop and related technology. A big advantage of this exam is that you have to take only one exam i.e 9A0-094 (Photoshop CS4) to achieve this certification. It has been designed for professionals who have a good understanding and knowledge in administering Adobe’s Photoshop. It is an excellent choice for those wanting to build a career in web and graphic design industry using Photoshop.

    Targeted job roles: Graphic designers, Web designers, System integrators, and Web Developers

    Exams:

    9A0-094 – Adobe Photoshop CS4 ACE Exam

    For more information on this exam please visit Adobe PhotoShop CS4 Certification

    5. OCA DBA 11g Certification: Oracle’s OCA DBA 11g is an entry-level certification specifically designed to certify foundation skills required for database administration or application development. It has been designed for professionals who have a good knowledge in administering database concept using Oracle. The certification is ideal for junior team members workingplanning to work with database administrators or application developers. It is perfect for those wishing to embark on a career administering and managing Oracle databases.

    Targeted job roles: Database Administrator, Database Analyst, and Database Developer

    Exams:

    1Z0-047 – Oracle Database SQL Expert

    1Z0-052 – OCA Oracle Database 11g Administration I

    For more information on this exam please visit OCA DBA 11g Certification

    6. MCPD Certification: Microsoft Certified Professional Developer (MCPD) credential is for those candidates who want enhance their skills and ability using Microsoft Visual Studio and the Microsoft .NET Framework to excel in a specific domain. It is the most popular and in demand Microsoft certification in recent years.

    Targeted job roles: Windows developers,Web developers, Enterprise developers etc.

    Exams:

    70-549-CSHARP – MCPD: C#.NET 2.0 Enterprise Application

    70-547-CSHARP – Designing Web-Based Applications C#.NET

    For more information on this exam please visit MCPD Microsoft Certified Professional Developer

    7. Zend PHP 5 Certification: Zend PHP5 is an entry-level certification specifically designed to certify foundation skills required for web development and programming. It has been designed for professionals who have a good knowledge in using PHP. In the current era PHP is more widely and openly used web technology. By earning a certification on Zend PHP it proves that you have expertise on using PHP language.

    Targeted job roles:Web Designer, Web developer, Web Site Manager etc.

    Exams:

    Zend PHP5 ">200-500

    For more information on this exam please visit Zend PHP 5 Certification

    8. SCJP 56 certification: Sun’s SCJP 5.0 certification is the most valuable certification in Java development products and technologies today This certification validates your ability to design applications using Java 2 SE 5.0 technology.

    Targeted job roles: Web Developer, Web Programmer, Software Developer and Application Programmer

    Exams:

    CX310-055 – SCJP 5.0

    CX310-065 – SCJP 6.0

    For more information on this exam please visit SCJP 56 certification

    9. MCITP Microsoft Windows Server certification: The Microsoft Certified IT Professional Server Administrator (MCITP: Server Administrator) credential is the leading certification for Windows Server 2008. It provides recognized, objective validation of your ability to perform critical, current IT job roles by using Microsoft technologies to their best advantage. Those who want to enhance their skills in server administration must attain this credential.

    Targeted job roles: Server administrator, Server manager, Network administrator and related roles.

    Exams:

    70-646 – PRO: Windows Server 2008, Server Administrator

    70-640 – MCTS: Windows Server 2008 Active Directory

    For more information on this exam please visit MCITP Microsoft Windows Server certification

    10. PMI-PMP certification: PMI’s PMP (Project Management Professional) certification is one of the most popular certifications today. This is the hottest certification in the management field. By achieving this certification, you will add more value to your management skills.The PMP credential recognizes demonstrated knowledge and skill in leading and directing project teams and in delivering project results within the constraints of schedule, budget, and resources.

    Targeted job roles: Project Manager, Team Leader, Team administrator

    Exams:

    PMP – PMI – PMP Project Management Professional

    For more information on this exam please visit PMI-PMP Certification

    NOTE:

    Celebrate Your Spring With uCertify’s Spring Sale and Save 20% on all uCertify PrepKits !

    uCertify is giving out 20% discount on all its PrepKits.Use promotional code “Spring” during the checkout to avail this offer. This offer is valid until 18 April, 2010. It will work on all uCertify PrepKits. You can check out the interface, question quality and usability of any PrepKit before deciding to buy it.



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