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310-012 - Solaris 8 System Administration II - Dump Information

Vendor : SUN
Exam Code : 310-012
Exam Name : Solaris 8 System Administration II
Questions and Answers : 325 Q & A
Updated On : August 18, 2017
PDF Download Mirror : 310-012 Brain Dump
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310-012 Questions and Answers

310-012


QUESTION: 316

How do you determine what kernel mode your system is running in?


  1. kern -a

  2. info-xv

  3. sysman -xv

  4. isainof -kv


Answer: D


QUESTION: 317

The default router file is located in the directory.


  1. /var

  2. /opt

  3. /etc/router

  4. /etc


Answer: D


QUESTION: 318

Back file systems refer to?


  1. Server side processes

  2. Original source of data

  3. Backend processing sub-systems

  4. Transport of data


Answer: B


QUESTION: 319

What is the highest alert level in syslog?


  1. alert

  2. emrg

  3. crit

  4. sevr


Answer: B


QUESTION: 320

Which is NOT a valid option in the command:

share -F nfs -o ro=venus,rw=mars,bg,root=venus /usr


  1. -F nfs

  2. rw=mars

  3. bg

  4. root=venus

  5. ro=venus


Answer: C


QUESTION: 321

You have remove credentials with?


  1. nisadm

  2. nisrmcred

  3. nisaddcred

  4. nispopulate


Answer: C


QUESTION: 322

The password command automatically checks for NIS+ and uses it instead of /etc/passwd:


  1. True

  2. False


Answer: B


QUESTION: 323

Which of these queues and transports mail?


  1. mail

  2. mailx

  3. sendmail

  4. uucp


Answer: C


QUESTION: 324

ARP is used to?


  1. Resolve names of machines to their IP addresses

  2. Resolve IP addresses of machines to their Ethernet addresses

  3. Act as a translation between the network layer and the Internet layer

  4. Resolve addresses


Answer: B


QUESTION: 325

What is the command to see which users are logged into the network?


  1. Who

  2. Which

  3. Rusers

  4. Rlogin


Answer: C


SUN 310-012 Exam (Solaris 8 System Administration II) Detailed Information

Article by ArticleForge

Sun Certified System Administrator for Solaris 8.0 Study Guide (Exam 310-011 & ">310-012)

Some of the most fundamental skills a systems administrator needs are related to installing and maintaining the system and associated software. Systems that are improperly installed and improperly patched will suffer from instability, which will result in long downtimes. Systems without the necessary software or with improperly configured software will not be useful to the user community.

The deeper the system administrator's understanding of these topics, the more effective that administrator can be. A system installation can be a confusing nightmare of installation options and configurations. An administrator with a solid understanding of the installation process can quickly and effectively get a system up and running. Installing software can be a very tedious and time-consuming process, especially if the software must be installed on multiple machines throughout the enterprise. An administrator who understands how software is handled in the Solaris 8 operating environment will be able to make the process completely automatic, saving time and reducing mistakes.

This chapter deals with the three main areas of installing and maintaining a system: the initial operating system installation, additional software installation, and operating system patches. Since hands-on experience with the Solaris 8 operating environment is essential to passing the Solaris certification exam, this chapter is one of the most important in this book.

Certification Objective 3.01 Installing the Solaris 8 Operating EnvironmentSoftware on a Networked Standalone System This section deals with the information and processes necessary to install the Solaris 8 operating environment. It covers the various versions of Solaris 8, the options for installing Solaris 8, and the hardware requirements. It also covers the function of software packages, clusters, and groups. Finally, it details preinstallation planning and the Solaris 8 operating environment installation. Versions of Solaris 8 Solaris 8 comes in several different versions. These versions are based on the platform on which you intend to install, your geographic location, and the age of the hardware you need to support. All versions of Solaris 8 contain the following disks:

  • Solaris 8 Installation CD
  • Solaris 8 Software CD 1 of 2
  • Solaris 8 Software CD 2 of 2
  • Solaris 8 Documentation CD
  • Platform Editions Solaris 8 supports two platforms, the Scalable Processor Architecture (SRC) platform and the IntelX86 platform. Both editions are available from Sun, generally for the cost of the media and shipping. This chapter deals almost exclusively with the SRC platform. Both editions are built from the same source tree, so knowledge of one should impart knowledge of the other. Many people preparing for the Solaris certification exam find it useful to be able to load the Intel version on commodity hardware that they already have at home. International Edition Solaris 8 is available in two "regional" versions: the English Edition and the International Edition. The International Edition contains a multilingual version of the Solaris 8 Installation CD as well as a Solaris 8 Languages CD, to support languages other than English. The International Edition also contains a two-CD set of Solaris 8 documentation, one for European languages (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Swedish), and one for Asian languages (Simplified and Traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean). Hardware Releases From time to time, generally about once a quarter, Sun Microsystems comes out with new hardware releases. These hardware releases are labeled "MMYY," such as Solaris 8 Hardware 0101 for the hardware release from January 2001. These updated editions provide drivers for newly released hardware as well as generally bundling more patches with the environment. The patches are not integrated into the release; they are separate to make it easier to maintain consistency and keep patching easy between systems running the same environment but different hardware releases. Installation Options Solaris 8 provides five installation options. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. Some of them provide easy, graphical user interface (GUI) driven installation for a single system. Others provide a way of automating the installation of large numbers of systems for rapid deployment. Some provide a completely automatic, hands-free installation of a single system. Interactive Installation The interactive installation is a GUI-driven option. It guides you through all the steps required for the installation of Solaris 8. It does not allow you to install any additional software, only that software that is part of Solaris 8. You can install any other software you want after the interactive installation is completed. Solaris Web Start 3.0 Solaris Web Start provides the installation process with a Java-powered GUI. It guides you step by step through the installation of Solaris 8, starting with the Solaris 8 installation CD. It also allows you to install other packaged software (see "Software Packages, Clusters, and Groups" later in this chapter), some of which comes bundled with Solaris. The installation can use a local or a remote CD-ROM drive.

    Exam WatchIn order to fully prepare for the certification exam, you should make sure that you are comfortable with all installation options. The best way to do this is to install the Solaris 8 operating environment several times using all the different options.

    Network Installation A Solaris network installation allows you to install a large number of systems without using a local CD-ROM. The Solaris 8 software is copied onto a network-accessible installation server and then installed across the network to the local clients. This method allows multiple machines to be built in parallel and removes the need to insert the CD-ROMs into each system. Default JumpStart The default JumpStart installation allows a new system (only) to be installed, completely "hands-off." When you boot the system with Software Disk 1 installed, JumpStart starts automatically and installs a default setup. Based on the model and disk size of the system, JumpStart determines the software components that need to be installed. Custom JumpStart The custom JumpStart installation is the most powerful installation option. By setting up a JumpStart server, the system administrator can define every aspect of the system installation and configuration: the file system layouts, the software components to be installed, the patches that are installed, other software that will be installed, and all the customization of the environment. You can define profiles based on the type of user that will be using the machine, the type of duty the machine will perform, the location of the machine, or any other criteria....

  • Article by ArticleForge

    Sun Certified Solaris 8 Exam

    Holla Guy's

    Guys I have gone through the Sun Solaris Sys admin books twice then down loaded brain dumps but they not helpful when it comes to the exam. Help me here, I actually searched for the exam at the site where you got yours.The practise is very good.Will you kindly tell me how much a full version for ">310-012 Sol Sys 2 cost or provide me with one if you can.

    CheersCollen

    Article by ArticleForge

    Installing Solaris 8

    This chapter is from the book 

    Solaris 8 can be installed in four ways. Two of the methods are interactive: The Solaris Interactive Installation program (SunInstall) and Solaris Web Start are covered in this chapter. The other two methods are automatic: JumpStart and Custom JumpStart. These methods are objectives for Exam CX-">310-012 and are covered in Chapter 21, "Over-the-Network Installation and JumpStart."

    SunInstall, an interactive Open Windows installation program, can be used to install the Solaris 8 software but it does not support installation of copackaged software. You can install any copackaged software using its provided installation program after you finish installing the Solaris 8 software.

    Web Start enables you to install Solaris 8 by using a Web browser–like interface instead of the Open Windows interface SunInstall uses. By default, all Solaris and copackaged software is installed; however, this default can be changed so that you can select specific software.

    By default, Web Start sets up the system disks, including the root and swap partitions. It also enables you to change the size of the system partitions and provides access to the Layout File Systems utility to set up other disks. The opt partition is created automatically for copackaged software. With Web Start, you can also create additional partitions and file systems.

    Hardware Requirements

    Solaris 8 can be installed on Sun SRC platforms and Intel x86 or compatible platforms. The hardware requirements for both are similar.

    Solaris 8 on SRC Hardware

    Solaris 8 can be installed on most sun4c, sun4u, and sun4m platform groups. Consult the Solaris 8 Sun Hardware Platform Guide to determine whether a particular platform is supported along with other devices and peripherals, such as disk drives, CD-ROM drives, tape drives, floppy disk drives, small computer system interface (SCSI)Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) host adapters, graphic accelerators, network interfaces, and keyboardmouse components.

    CAUTION

    You can use the Solaris 8 installation programs to install the 32-bit or 64-bit version of the Solaris operating system. The 64-bit version is selected by default when you install on Sun UltraSRC systems, but you can choose the 32-bit version instead. However, you might need to upgrade the Flash PROM on some UltraSRC sun4u platforms to provide 64-bit support. The Solaris 8 Sun Hardware Platform Guide supplies information on determining whether the Flash PROM for a particular system must be upgraded and provides a procedure for updating the Flash PROM.

    Solaris 8 requires a minimum of 64MB of memory. The recommended space for the End-User System is 1.6GB of hard disk space. For the largest software group (Entire Distribution Plus OEM with 64-bit support), 2.4GB of hard disk space is required. Either a CD-ROM drive or the appropriate environment for a network installation is required.

    Solaris 8 on Intel Hardware

    Solaris 8 can be installed on most Pentium or better Intel-compatible CPUs, including AMD and Cyrix processors. Consult the Solaris 8 (Intel Platform Edition) Hardware Compatibility List to determine whether a particular CPU is supported along with other devices and peripherals, such as system buses, disk drives, CD-ROM drives, tape drives, floppy disk drives, SCSIPCI host adapters, graphic accelerators, network interfaces, and keyboardmouse components. If the system does not have a CD-ROM drive or cannot be booted from the CD-ROM drive, a floppy disk drive is required.

    The memory and storage requirements for Intel hardware are identical to those for SRC hardware: a minimum of 64MB of memory, 1.6GB of hard disk space for the End-User System with 32-bit support, and 2.4GB of hard disk space for the Entire Distribution. Either a CD-ROM drive or the appropriate environment for a network installation is required.

    Installing Solaris 8 on a New System by Using Web Start

    If you're installing Solaris 8 on a single new system, the preferred installation method is to install from a local CD-ROM drive by using Web Start. (Over-the-network installation is described briefly later in this chapter and in more detail in Chapter 21, "Over-the-Network Installation and JumpStart.") Solaris Web Start can be accessed with a command-line interface or a graphical user interface (GUI).

    The installation is divided logically into three phases:

  • Preparation

  • Configuration

  • Software installation

  • Preparation

    The following list summarizes the preparation steps for installing Solaris 8 on a SRC or Intel-compatible platform from a local CD-ROM drive:

  • Verify that the system hardware is supported. For a SRC system, see the Solaris 8 Sun Platform Guide. For an Intel-compatible system, see the Solaris 8 (Intel Platform Edition) Hardware Compatibility List.

  • If the system is networked (will be attached to a network), decide whether Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) will be used. If not, determine the hostname, IP address, and subnet mask information.

  • Determine the domain name. If a name service is used, determine the server hostname and IP address. The name service choices are Domain Name System (DNS), Network Information Service (NIS), or Network Information Service Plus (NIS+).

  • Determine the disk space required by selecting a software group (End-User, Developer, Entire Distribution, or Entire Distribution Plus OEM) and identifying additional software and space for home directories.

  • Determine the language used to install Solaris.

  • Insert the appropriate Solaris 8 Installation CD-ROM (English or Multilingual) into the CD-ROM drive. For Intel-compatibles that cannot boot from the CD-ROM drive, insert the Solaris 8 Device Configuration Assistant floppy disk in the floppy disk drive.

  • Boot the system by turning the power on.

  • For Intel-compatible systems, the Device Configuration Assistant runs to identify the hardware configuration.

  • If you're using the Multilingual CD-ROM, the Web Start Installer prompts you for the language to use during the install. Select the appropriate language.

  • For SRC platforms, the Installer prompts you to select Initial Install or Upgrade. Select Initial Install.

  • For Intel-compatible platforms, if an appropriate partition for Solaris is not located, a utility similar to the MS-DOS FDISK program executes to define a partition.

  • The Installer prompts you to confirm reformatting of the default disk, requests a size for the swap space, and confirms that the swap space can be located at the beginning of the disk (or prompts for a starting location if the swap space can't be located). The Installer copies the mini-root and platform-specific files to the disk and then reboots the system.

  • For SRC platforms, the Web Start GUI starts automatically after the system boots.

  • For Intel-compatible platforms, the Installer prompts you for a window configuration (video card and monitor) and tests it to be certain the configuration is correct. Without a proper configuration, the GUI and Solaris Desktop cannot be displayed. After a few seconds, the Web Start GUI starts.

  • The install process continues with the configuration phase.

    Configuration

    Use the following steps in the Web Start GUI to collect the necessary configuration information. In this sequence of windows, the next window is typically displayed after you supply the required information in the current window and click the Next button:

  • The Welcome window is displayed.

  • In the Network Connectivity window, select Networked. (If you do not know the network configuration, contact your network administrator.)

  • In the DHCP window, select Yes to enable DHCP; otherwise, select No. If DHCP is not being used, do the following:

  • In the Host Name screen, enter the name of the host in the dialog box.

  • In the IP Address screen, enter the IP address of the system name in the dialog box.

  • In the Netmask screen, enter the subnet mask in the dialog box.

  • In the IPv6 screen, select Yes to enable IPv6; otherwise, select No.

  • In the Name Service screen, select NIS+, NIS, DNS, or None. If you select a name service, do the following:

  • In the Domain Name screen, enter the domain name in the dialog box.

  • If you selected NIS or NIS+, in the Name Server screen, select Find One or Specify One. If you select Specify One, the Name Server Information screen opens, in which you specify the server hostname and IP address.

  • If you selected DNS, in the DNS Server Address screen, enter up to three IP addresses for DNS servers in the dialog boxes. In the DNS Search List screen, enter up to six domains to be searched to resolve a DNS query in the dialog boxes. If none is identified, only the domain specified for the system will be searched.

  • In the Time Zone screen, select how to specify the time zone: Geographic Region, Offset From GMT, or Time Zone File. Depending on which selection you make, do the following:

  • If you select Geographic Region, the Geographic Region screen opens. Select a region or country and an associated time zone.

  • If you select Offset From GMT, the Offset From GMT window opens. Drag the slide bar until the window displays the correct number of hours (plus or minus) the time zone differs from GMT.

  • If you select Time Zone File, the Time Zone File window opens. Enter the name of the time zone file (typically usrsharelibzoneinfo).

  • In the Date And Time window, enter the year, month, day, hour, and minute in the appropriate dialog boxes.

  • In the Root Password window, enter the password for the root account.

  • In the Power Management window, select whether power management should be turned on or off and whether the selection should be prompted at each reboot.

  • In the Proxy Server Configuration window, select Direct Connection To The Internet or Use Proxy Configuration and enter the proxy server's hostname and port number.

  • The Confirm Information window summarizes your selections. Either click Confirm to continue with the software installation phase, or click Back to change one or more selections.

  • The install process continues with the software installation phase.

    Software Installation

    Use the following steps in the Web Start GUI to install the Solaris 8 software on a networked SRC or Intel-compatible system with a local CD-ROM drive. In this sequence of windows, the next window is typically displayed after you provide the required information in the current window and click the Next button:

  • In the Welcome window, click Next. The Installation CD is ejected.

  • In the Insert CD window, click OK after inserting the Solaris 8 Software 1 of 2 CD-ROM in the CD-ROM drive.

  • In the Select Type Of Install window, select Default Install or Custom Install. If you select Default Install, skip steps 4 through 10; the installation continues with step 11.

  • In the Select Software Localizations window, select software localization based on geographic region.

  • In the Select System Locale window, select the initial locale.

  • In the Select Products window, select any additional products (such as the AnswerBook2) that should be installed.

  • In the Additional Products window, select None if no other products are to be installed at this time, or select one of the following:

  • If you select Product CD, the Solaris 8 Software CD-ROM is ejected and the Insert CD dialog box is displayed. Click OK after inserting a product CD-ROM to be scanned. The Scanning CD window is displayed. After the CD-ROM has been scanned, the Select Products window is displayed; it lists the software products found on the CD-ROM. Select the products to install. Eject the Product CD-ROM, insert the Solaris 8 software CD-ROM, and click OK.

  • If you select Kiosk Download, the Scanning Download window is displayed. After Web Start scans the Kiosk download directory (webstartkioskdownload), the Select Products window is displayed; it lists the software products found in the download directory. Select the products to install and click OK.

  • If you select Local Or Network File System, the Specify Network File System Path window is displayed. Enter the correct path to additional products that should be installed. After Web Start scans the specified path, the Select Products window is displayed; it lists the software products found. Select the products to install and click OK.

  • In the Select Solaris Cluster Configuration window, select the software group.

  • In the Disk Selection window, select one or more disks to be used for the Solaris 8 software.

  • The Lay Out File Systems window shows a default file system layout. To modify the layout, highlight a listed diskfile system entry and click Modify. A Disk dialog box opens in which you can assign the file systems on the disk to different slices andor modify the size of each file system. Click Apply to save the configuration and return to the Lay Out File Systems window. Click Next when you've finished modifying the layout.

  • The Ready To Install window summarizes your selections. Click Install Now to start the installation or Back to change one or more selections.

  • The Installing window displays messages and progress bars to show the status of the software installation. When the installation of the Solaris 8 Software 1 of 2 CD-ROM is completed, the CD-ROM is ejected.

  • The Installation Summary window displays the status of the installation. To view additional information, click Details.

  • If you select additional products, the Specify Media window opens, in which you can select either CD or Network File System as a

  • If you select CD, the Insert CD dialog box is displayed. Click OK after inserting a product CD-ROM. The Reading CD, Launching Installer, Extracting, and Installing windows are displayed.

  • If you select Network File System, the Specify Network File System Path window is displayed. Enter the correct path to additional products that should be installed. The Launching Installer, Extracting, and Installing windows are displayed.

  • In the Reboot window, click Reboot Now to reboot the system.

  • After the system reboots, log in as the root account and select OpenWindows or CDE as a desktop for the account. You've now completed the Solaris 8 installation for a networked standalone system by using Web Start.

    Upgrading an Existing Solaris System

    Upgrading a system enables you to merge the existing system configuration with the new Solaris 8 operating system. However, planning and occasional manual intervention are necessary for a successful upgrade.

    CAUTION

    SunInstall and Custom JumpStart (see Chapter 21) can be used to upgrade a system. Web Start and the standard JumpStart cannot be used to upgrade an existing system with an earlier version of Solaris (Solaris 7 or earlier).

    Before the Upgrade

    You should complete a number of tasks before you upgrade your system:

  • Check the latest Solaris 8 Release Notes to determine whether any Solaris 8 changes or enhancements affect the current operation. This information includes software no longer provided with Solaris or patches you need to install.

  • Verify that the hardware is supported as described in the preparation phase of the Web Start installation.

  • Install Solaris by using a CD-ROM or via the network. Depending on the method, verify the proper operation of the CD-ROM drive or network connectivity.

  • Some Sun applications, such as DiskSuite, cannot be upgraded automatically. Manual configuration changes are required before the software can be used. Check the documentation provided with the applications.

  • If any third-party software is installed on the system, check with the software manufacturer to verify that the software will run on Solaris 8. You might need to purchase new versions of third-party software.

  • Back up the existing system. If the upgrade fails, you might need to restore to the existing system until the reasons for failure can be determined and resolved.

  • Collect any configuration information you might be prompted for during the upgrade, such as hostname, network interface, IP address, subnet mask, and domain name. You can avoid having to respond to prompts during installation by preconfiguring system configuration information (as explained in the "Preconfiguring System Configuration Information" section later in this chapter).

  • Set up a backup medium for possible use during the upgrade. If disk space needs to be reallocated, you need to copy file systems to a backup medium and then reload them after the space on the system disks has been adjusted. Local devices, such as unused system disks, tape, or floppy disks, as well as remote file systems can be used for the backup medium.

  • If you're using the Solaris 8 distribution CD, insert it in the system's CD-ROM drive. For x86 platforms that cannot be booted from the CD-ROM drive, insert the Device Configuration Assistant floppy disk into the A: drive. If you're installing over the network, set up an install server and possibly a boot server.

  • Reboot the system.

  • During the Upgrade

    If the current layout of the system disks does not provide enough space for the upgrade, SunInstall uses the auto-layout feature to reallocate disk space as required. If the auto-layout fails or you want to use a different layout, you must manually specify the disk layout.

    If the system configuration information was not preconfigured, you need to supply the correct information when prompted.

    After the Upgrade

    Merging the existing system configuration with the Solaris 8 operating system might not be completely successful, and you may need to do some manual cleanup. Check the avarsadmsystemdataupgrade_clean file to determine any configuration problems that need to be reviewed and possibly modified before the system can be rebooted.

    After resolving any cleanup issues, reboot the system.

    Preconfiguring System Configuration Information

    You can preconfigure the system configuration information required for installation in two ways:

  • Name service method—This method adds the system information to an available name service (NIS or NIS+). During installation, the information is retrieved from the name service and used to configure the system. This is the recommended method for SRC installations.

  • Sysidcfg file method—This method creates a file named sysidcfg that contains the configuration information. The file must conform to a defined format (keywords and syntax). The file must be available on a local drive, and the local floppy disk drive on the remote drive must be accessible via the network.

  • Over-the-Network Installation

    Typically, a system is installed with the Solaris 8 distribution CD using a local CD-ROM drive. However, software can be installed over the network if these systems are set up:

  • Install server—A server created by copying the contents of the Solaris 8 distribution CD to its disk drive or that has the distribution CD available in its CD-ROM drive.

  • Boot server—A server used for booting clients located on a different subnet than the install server. The boot server should be located on the same subnet as the clients.

  • You set up systems to be installed over the network by using Solstice Host Manager to add (preconfigure) information about the systems to NISNIS+ or by adding the information to configuration files of an install server or a boot server.

  • Article by ArticleForge

    Solaris 10 System Administration Exam Prep: CX-310-200, Part I, Safari, 2nd Edition

    Introduction................................................................................................................ 1

        How This Book Helps You............................................................................... 2

        Conventions Used in This Book....................................................................... 4

        Audience....................................................................................................... 5

        The Sun Certified System Administrator Exams................................................ 5

        Exam CX-310-200.......................................................................................... 6

            Manage File Systems......................................................................... 6

            Install Software.................................................................................. 6

            Perform System Boot Procedures........................................................ 6

            Perform User and Security Administration............................................ 7

            Manage Network Printers and System Processes................................. 7

            Perform System Backups and Restores............................................... 7

        Exam CX-310-203 (Solaris 10 Upgrade Exam).................................................. 7

        Summary...................................................................................................... 8

        Advice on Taking the Exam............................................................................. 8

    Study and Exam Prep Tips........................................................................................ 11

        Learning as a Process.................................................................................. 11

        Study Tips................................................................................................... 12

            Study Strategies.............................................................................. 12

            Pretesting Yourself........................................................................... 13

        Exam Prep Tips........................................................................................... 13

            Putting It All Together....................................................................... 15

    Part I: Exam Preparation

    chapter oneManaging File Systems............................................................................................ 21

        Introduction.................................................................................................. 26

        Device Drivers.............................................................................................. 26

        Physical Device Name.................................................................................. 27

        Device Autoconfiguration............................................................................... 33

        USB Devices................................................................................................ 35

        Instance Names........................................................................................... 37

        Major and Minor Device Numbers................................................................... 40

        Logical Device Name.................................................................................... 42

            Block and Raw Devices..................................................................... 46

        A File System Defined.................................................................................. 48

        Defining a Disk’s Geometry........................................................................... 48

            Disk Controllers................................................................................ 49

            Defect List....................................................................................... 49

            Disk Labels...................................................................................... 50

            Partition Tables................................................................................ 51

        Solaris File System Types............................................................................ 52

            Disk-Based File Systems.................................................................. 52

            Network-Based File Systems............................................................ 52

            Virtual File Systems......................................................................... 53

        Disk Slices.................................................................................................. 54

            Displaying Disk Configuration Information............................................ 56

            Using the format Utility to Create Slices............................................... 58

            The Free Hog Slice........................................................................... 66

            Using the format Utility to Modify Partitions.......................................... 66

            Using the Solaris Management Console Disks Tool............................. 69

            Recovering Disk Partition Information.................................................. 74

            Logical Volumes............................................................................... 75

        Parts of a UFS ............................................................................................ 75

        The Root () File System............................................................................... 78

            Soft (Symbolic) Links........................................................................ 83

            Hard Links....................................................................................... 85

            Removing a Link............................................................................... 87

        Components of the UFS ............................................................................... 87

            The Boot Block................................................................................ 88

            The Superblock................................................................................ 88

            Cylinder Groups............................................................................... 89

            The inode......................................................................................... 89

            The Storage Block............................................................................ 90

            Free Blocks..................................................................................... 90

        Creating a UFS ........................................................................................... 90

        Understanding Custom File System Parameters............................................. 92

            Logical Block Size............................................................................ 93

            Fragment Size................................................................................. 93

            Minimum Free Space........................................................................ 94

            Optimization Type............................................................................ 95

            Number of inodes and Bytes per inode............................................... 95

            The mkfs Command........................................................................... 95

            The fstyp Command.......................................................................... 98

        File System Operations................................................................................ 99

            Synchronizing a File System............................................................. 99

            Repairing File Systems................................................................... 100

            The labelit Command........................................................................ 104

            The volcopy Command..................................................................... 105

        Tuning File Systems................................................................................... 106

        Mounting File Systems............................................................................... 108

            Mounting a File System with Large Files........................................... 113

            Mounting a File System with UFS Logging Enabled........................... 114

        Unmounting a File System.......................................................................... 114

            The fuser Command........................................................................ 115

            etcmnttab.......................................................................................... 116

        Volume Management.................................................................................. 120

            Using Volume Management............................................................. 128

            Troubleshooting Volume Manager..................................................... 129

            Displaying a File System’s Disk Space Usage.................................. 131

            Displaying Directory Size Information................................................ 135

        Information on File Systems........................................................................ 136

            Controlling User Disk Space Usage.................................................. 138

            The quot Command.......................................................................... 139

        Summary................................................................................................... 141

            Key Terms..................................................................................... 141

            Exercises...................................................................................... 142

            Exam Questions............................................................................. 147

            Answers to Review Questions.......................................................... 163

        Suggested Readings and Resources............................................................ 170

    chapter twoInstalling the Solaris 10 Operating Environment......................................................... 171

        Introduction................................................................................................ 174

        Installing the Solaris 10 Software.................................................................. 174

        Requirements and Preparation for Installing the Solaris 10 Software................ 175

            Minimum System Requirements...................................................... 176

        Software Terminology.................................................................................. 177

            Software Packages......................................................................... 177

            Software Groups............................................................................. 177

            Solaris Media................................................................................. 179

            System Configuration to Be Installed................................................ 179

        Disk Storage.............................................................................................. 181

            Basic Considerations for Planning Partition (Slice) Sizes.................... 183

            Slice Arrangements on Multiple Disks.............................................. 184

        Methods of Installing the Solaris 10 Software................................................. 185

            Solaris Interactive Installation: Using the GUI..................................... 186

            Solaris Interactive Installation: Using the CLI..................................... 186

            JumpStart...................................................................................... 187

            Custom JumpStart.......................................................................... 187

            Solaris Live Upgrade....................................................................... 188

            Solaris Flash Archives..................................................................... 189

            WAN Boot..................................................................................... 190

        Upgrading the Operating System.................................................................. 190

        The Solaris Installation Prechecklist............................................................. 191

            Secure by Default........................................................................... 194

            Using the Interactive Installation Process (install-solaris) on a SRC-Based System 195

            Configuring Power Management....................................................... 224

        Tools for Managing Software........................................................................ 225

        Adding and Removing Software Packages..................................................... 226

        Using a Spool Directory............................................................................... 227

            Installing Software from the Command Line....................................... 229

            Removing Software Using pkgrm........................................................ 229

            Solaris Product Registry.................................................................. 230

            Web Start Installer.......................................................................... 233

        Listing and Verifying Installed Packages....................................................... 235

        Software Patches....................................................................................... 237

        Obtaining a Patch....................................................................................... 238

            Installing a Patch............................................................................ 240

            Removing a Patch........................................................................... 243

        Patch Manager (smpatch).............................................................................. 244

        Patch Tool................................................................................................. 249

        General Guidelines..................................................................................... 251

        Summary................................................................................................... 253

            Key Terms..................................................................................... 253

            Exercises...................................................................................... 254

            Exam Questions............................................................................. 258

            Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 264

            Suggested Readings and Resources................................................ 266

    chapter threePerforming System Boot and Shutdown Procedures for SRC, x64-, and x86-Based Systems       267

        Introduction................................................................................................ 272

        Booting a SRC System........................................................................... 272

            Powering on the System................................................................. 273

            The Boot PROM and Program Phases.............................................. 273

        The OpenBoot Environment......................................................................... 274

            Entry-Level to High-End Systems..................................................... 276

            Accessing the OpenBoot Environment.............................................. 276

            System Console............................................................................. 277

            System Control Switch.................................................................... 277

            OpenBoot Firmware Tasks.............................................................. 278

        The OpenBoot Architecture.......................................................................... 279

        The OpenBoot Interface............................................................................... 281

        Getting Help in OpenBoot............................................................................ 281

        PROM Device Tree (Full Device Pathnames)................................................. 283

            OpenBoot Device Aliases................................................................ 287

        OpenBoot NVRAM...................................................................................... 289

            The nvedit Line Editor....................................................................... 296

        OpenBoot Security..................................................................................... 298

        OpenBoot Diagnostics................................................................................ 300

            Input and Output Control.................................................................. 305

        OpenBoot PROM Versions.......................................................................... 307

        Booting a SRC System........................................................................... 307

            The boot Command.......................................................................... 309

            The BIOS....................................................................................... 319

            GRUB............................................................................................ 320

            Configuring the Video Display on the x86x64 Platform....................... 329

        The Kernel................................................................................................. 331

        The init Phase............................................................................................. 335

            The Service Management Facility (SMF)........................................... 337

            Using the Run Control Scripts to Stop or Start Services..................... 366

        System Shutdown...................................................................................... 370

            Commands to Shut Down the System.............................................. 371

            Stopping the System for Recovery Purposes: SRC........................ 375

            Stopping the System for Recovery Purposes: x86x64....................... 377

            Turning Off the Power to the Hardware.............................................. 377

        Summary................................................................................................... 378

            Key Terms..................................................................................... 378

            Exercises...................................................................................... 380

            Exam Questions............................................................................. 384

            Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 392

        Suggested Readings and Resources............................................................ 397

    CHAPTER fourUser and Security Administration............................................................................. 399

        Introduction................................................................................................ 402

        Administering User Accounts....................................................................... 402

            Managing User and Group Accounts with the SMC............................ 402

            Managing User and Group Accounts from the Command Line............. 417

        Setting Up Shell Initialization Files............................................................... 425

            C Shell Initialization Files................................................................ 425

            Bourne Shell Initialization Files........................................................ 426

            Korn Shell Initialization Files............................................................ 426

            Additional Shells luded with Solaris 10......................................... 426

            Default Initialization Files................................................................. 427

            Customizing User Initialization Files................................................. 428

            The Home Directory........................................................................ 431

            Projects......................................................................................... 432

            Name Services............................................................................... 432

        System Security......................................................................................... 433

            Controlling Physical Security........................................................... 434

            Controlling System Access............................................................. 434

            Controlling File Access................................................................... 443

        Access Control Lists (ACLs)........................................................................ 447

            Setting ACL Entries........................................................................ 448

            Checking the New File Permissions................................................. 450

            Verifying ACL Entries...................................................................... 450

            Copying a File’s ACL to Another File................................................ 450

            Modifying ACL Entries on a File....................................................... 451

            Deleting ACL Entries from a File...................................................... 451

            Auditing Users................................................................................ 454

            Controlling Network Security............................................................ 459

            Securing Superuser Access............................................................ 466

        The Secure Shell (ssh)................................................................................. 468

        ASET 471

        Common-Sense Security Techniques........................................................... 473

        Summary................................................................................................... 474

            Key Terms..................................................................................... 457

            Exercises...................................................................................... 475

            Exam Questions............................................................................. 480

            Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 489

        Suggested Reading and Resources.............................................................. 492

    CHAPTER fiveManaging System Processes.................................................................................. 493

        Introduction................................................................................................ 496

        Viewing a Process...................................................................................... 496

            pgrep................................................................................................ 500

            prstat................................................................................................ 502

            mpstat............................................................................................... 506

            ptree................................................................................................. 507

            time.................................................................................................. 507

            Process Manager........................................................................... 508

            SMC Process Tool.......................................................................... 511

            pargs................................................................................................ 512

            svcs................................................................................................. 514

        Process Types........................................................................................... 515

        Using Signals............................................................................................. 517

        Scheduling Processes................................................................................ 521

        Scheduling Priorities................................................................................... 522

            Changing the Priority of a Time-Sharing Process with nice................... 522

            Changing the Scheduling Priority of Processes with priocntl................. 524

            Fair Share Scheduler (FSS) and the Fixed Scheduler (FX).................. 525

        Using the Solaris Batch-Processing Facility.................................................. 525

            Configuring crontab........................................................................... 525

            Scheduling a Single System Event (at).............................................. 528

            Job Scheduler................................................................................ 531

        Summary................................................................................................... 533

            Key Terms..................................................................................... 533

            Exercises...................................................................................... 534

            Exam Questions............................................................................. 535

            Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 539

        Suggested Reading and Resources.............................................................. 540

    Chapter sixManaging the LP Print Service................................................................................. 541

        The Solaris OS Print Service (LP)................................................................. 544

        The Solaris Print Service............................................................................. 544

            LP Print Service Directories............................................................. 546

            The Print Spooler............................................................................ 547

            The LP Print Daemons.................................................................... 548

        Setting Up the Printer Hardware................................................................... 550

            Ethernet Connections...................................................................... 550

            Parallel Connections....................................................................... 550

            Serial Connections.......................................................................... 550

            USB Connections........................................................................... 551

        Setting Up a Network Printer ....................................................................... 551

            BSD Versus SVR4 Printing Software................................................ 551

            Print Servers Versus Print Clients.................................................... 553

            Configuring Software for a Solaris Printer........................................... 554

        Administering Printers................................................................................. 560

            Deleting Printers and Managing Printer Access................................. 560

            Creating Printer Classes.................................................................. 562

            Checking Printer Status.................................................................. 564

            Managing Printer Queues................................................................ 565

            Restarting the Print Scheduler......................................................... 571

            Setting a User’s Default Printer........................................................ 572

            Modifying the Printer with Print Manager........................................... 572

            Troubleshooting the Print Scheduler................................................. 574

        Summary................................................................................................... 574

            Key Terms..................................................................................... 575

            Exercises...................................................................................... 576

            Exam Questions............................................................................. 582

            Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 586

        Suggested Reading and Resources.............................................................. 587

    chapter SevenPerforming System Backups and Restorations.......................................................... 589

        Introduction................................................................................................ 592

        Backup Media............................................................................................ 592

            Tape Device Names........................................................................ 593

        Solaris Backup and Restoration Utilities....................................................... 595

            The tar Utility.................................................................................. 595

            The dd Utility.................................................................................. 597

            The cpio Utility................................................................................ 599

            The pax Utility................................................................................. 603

            The ufsdump Utility........................................................................... 606

            The ufsrestore Utility......................................................................... 612

            Recovering the Root () or usr File System........................................ 618

            Additional Notes About Restoring Files............................................. 622

        Tape Drive Control....................................................................................... 623

        The UFS Snapshot Utility.............................................................................. 624

        zip and unzip.............................................................................................. 629

        Solaris Flash Archive.................................................................................. 629

        The jar Utility.............................................................................................. 631

        Summary................................................................................................... 633

            Key Terms..................................................................................... 634

            Exercises...................................................................................... 635

            Exam Questions............................................................................. 637

            Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 640

        Suggested Readings and Resources............................................................ 641

    Part II: Final Review

    Fast Facts............................................................................................................. 645

        Managing File Systems............................................................................... 645

            Devices and Drivers......................................................................... 646

            Instance Names............................................................................. 647

            File Systems.................................................................................. 647

            Creating a UFS............................................................................... 650

            Volume Management...................................................................... 651

        Installing the Solaris 10 Operating Environment............................................. 651

            Tools for Managing Software............................................................ 653

            Software Patches........................................................................... 654

        System Startup and Shutdown..................................................................... 655

            OpenBoot Environment (SRC Systems Only)................................ 656

            The Kernel..................................................................................... 659

            Commands to Shut Down the System.............................................. 661

        User and Security Administration................................................................. 661

            Shells and Initialization Files............................................................ 662

            System Security............................................................................. 665

            Protecting Data.............................................................................. 666

            Access Control Lists (ACLs)............................................................ 667

            Monitoring Users............................................................................ 668

            Network Security............................................................................ 668

            Restricting Root Access.................................................................. 669

        Managing Processes.................................................................................. 669

            Using the kill Command.................................................................... 670

            Using the Solaris Batch-Processing Facility...................................... 671

        Managing the LP Print Service..................................................................... 672

            The LP Print Daemons.................................................................... 674

        Performing System Backups and Restorations.............................................. 675

    Practice Exam ...................................................................................................... 677

        Practice Exam Questions............................................................................ 677

    Answers to the Practice Exam ................................................................................ 685

        Answers at a Glance to the Practice Exam................................................... 685

    Part III: Appendix

    AppendixWhat’s on the CD-ROM .......................................................................................... 693

        ExamGear, Exam Prep Edition ................................................................... 693

    Glossary           695

    Article by ArticleForge

    Consult Beaute Internal/External Volumagen Cream, Concentrate & Beaute Cocktail

    Moisture enhancing mask

    Key Ingredients for Dry Skin:Hyalauronic Acid, Glycerin, Lanolin, Alpha Hydroxy Acids, Oil (Of Jojoba, Olive, Apricot Seed, Avocado, Grapeseed Borage, Almond, Evening Primrose), Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Honey, Shea Butter, Argan, Baobab, Manuka Honey, Green Tea (Camilla Sinsnsis), Ceramide, Glycolic Acid, Hydrolized Wheat Protein, Cocoa Butter, Shea Butter, Cucumber

    Why Moisturize?Everyone can benefit from using a moisturizer after cleansing. The key is finding the appropriate moisturizer based on your skin type. Moisturizers seal moisture into the skin, so the effect is hydrating while also inhibiting evaporation. Many moisturizers contain active ingredients that deliver vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and skin supporting compounds to provide therapeutic benefits that sooth, protect and ultimately help delay the onset of early aging.Eye creams are optional, but may be desirable for those with dry or aging skin as a welcome addendum to a moisturizer. Some individuals have very delicate eye areas that are more susceptible to wrinkling, dark circles and puffiness. An eye cream can help address these specific concerns with intense moisture and a high concentration of active ingredients.

    How to Choose a MoisturizerThe oilier your complexion, the lighter and more liquid your moisturizer should be. Some moisturizers even have oil free ingredients that still serve to moisturize the skin without adding oil. Conversely, dry or aging skin requires a more moisturizing-nourishing preparation. Use a moisturizer labeled with your skin type or specific skin concern. If you live in a particularly harsh climate, consider wearing a more moisturizing face cream during the winter and switch to a lighter formula during warmer months.Night creams tend to be thicker and more moisturizing than day creams. It is generally recommended to have separate moisturizers simply for the fact that you will want a day cream with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF). This will provide you with added protection from sun damage that can lead to premature aging.Based on the amount of time you spend outside on any particular day, you might want to wear a moisturizer designed for outdoor use with a significantly higher SPF. You must also factor in how easily your skin burns and take precautions to protect your skin with a sufficient SPF. As a general rule, it is recommended that your day moisturizer should have at least 15-20 SPF, and if you spend more time outdoors, consider a moisturizer with 30+ SPF.

    How to Use MoisturizerAfter you wash your face and apply toner or a serum (optional), scoop out enough moisturizer to comfortably cover your face and neck area. Using your fingertips, rub it in using upward strokes, making sure to moisturize the neck, décolletage and earlobes. In order to prevent streaks, allow your moisturizer to penetrate before applying foundation.

    Why Moisturize?Everyone can benefit from using a moisturizer after cleansing. The key is finding the appropriate moisturizer based on your skin type. Moisturizers seal moisture into the skin, so the effect is hydrating while also inhibiting evaporation. Many moisturizers contain active ingredients that deliver vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and skin supporting compounds to provide therapeutic benefits that sooth, protect and ultimately delay the onset of early aging.Eye creams are optional, but may be desirable for those with dry or aging skin as a welcome addendum to a moisturizer. Some individuals have very delicate eye areas that are more susceptible to wrinkling, dark circles and puffiness. An eye cream can help address these specific concerns with intense moisture and a high concentration of active ingredients.

    How to Choose a MoisturizerThe oilier your complexion, the lighter and more liquid your moisturizer should be. Some moisturizers even have oil free ingredients that still serve to moisturize the skin without adding oil. Conversely, dry or aging skin requires a more moisturizing-nourishing preparation. Use a moisturizer labeled with your skin type or specific skin concern. If you live in a particularly harsh climate, consider wearing a more moisturizing face cream during the winter and switch to a lighter formula during warmer months.Night creams tend to be thicker and more moisturizing than day creams. It is generally recommended to have separate moisturizers simply for the fact that you will want a day cream with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF). This will provide you with added protection from sun damage that ultimately leads to premature aging.Based on the amount of time you spend outside on any particular day, you might want to wear a moisturizer designed for outdoor use with a significantly higher SPF. You must also factor in how easily your skin burns and take precautions to protect your skin with a sufficient SPF. As a general rule, it is recommended that your day moisturizer should have at least 15-20 SPF, and if you spend more time outdoors, consider a moisturizer with 30+ SPF.

    How to Use MoisturizerAfter you wash your face and apply toner or a serum (optional), scoop out enough moisturizer to comfortably cover your face and neck area. Using your finger tips, rub it in using upward strokes, making sure to moisturize the neck, décolletage and earlobes. In order to prevent streaks, allow your moisturizer to penetrate before applying foundation.

    Skin Firming

    When skin ages, its collagen and elastin are produced more slowly. This causes gradual changes like hyperpigmentation, discoloration, dryness, sagging, wrinkles, crepe-like folds, loss of muscle tone, textural unevenness and loss of elasticity.

    The topical application of key skin firming ingredients works synergistically to protect and strengthen the skin. Skin care products should have a combination of naturally occurring active ingredients. They will contain compounds to protect which will likely be in the form of extracts containing antioxidants. Another set of ingredients will firm the skin by penetrating through its seven layers to support the collagen process at a cellular level.

    Skin firming creams are usually formulated as night creams. They tend to be richer, thicker and more emollient and should be able to stay on long enough to absorb for maximum benefits. In general, face creams are designed to minimize lineswrinkles, improve skin density, firm, plump and decrease puffiness (especially in the eye area).

    Many manufacturers describe their product as a "cocktail" of ingredients that work together to decrease the effects of aging. Skin firming and anti-aging ingredients often include antioxidants, minerals, seaweed, herb extracts and different kinds of oils like Vitamins A and E. Other ingredients attributed to having a firming effect on the skin include green tea, aloe vera, beech bud extract, alpha lipoic acids, shea butter, hyaluronic acid and the very exotic sounding emu oil. Some firming and anti-aging products also contain light reflecting pigments, such as mica, to enhance the glow and make the skin look radiant.

    You can choose the right skin firming creams according to your skin type (oily, combination or dry) and the anti-aging action associated with them.

    Aging skin may have any combination of wrinkles, sagging or slack skin around the jowls, chin, cheeks and jawline. It may also have evidence of sun damage (photo damagehyperpigmentation) in the form of spots or leathery texture. The skin may also feel tight and dry. If you tend to have dry skin, you will need moisturizing products that nourish, so you will want to find protective and restorative products. Achieving a moisture balance with the right pH is key.

    Daily Skin Care RegimenBegin with a very mild soap, possibly cream based. Since skin can be acidic, the alkaline in soap can easily disturb the delicate pH balance. Also, make sure the soap does not contain harsh chemicals which will also remove the acid mantel and cause further dryness. Choose a toner that soothes and nourishes your skin. It should refresh with a hint of moisture - a low or no alcohol formulation is recommended to prevent over drying the skin.

    A daily moisturizing routine is essential to aging skin. After washing skin, pat it dry and begin with a serum to enhance moisture, then apply a day moisturizer. Try to use a day cream with an SPF An evening ritual can include a serum application and a heavier moisturizer. Eye creams and serums are recommended for the delicate area around the eyes that are subject to fine lines and wrinkles.

    Weekly Skin Care RoutineUse an extremely mild exfoliator in order to expose fresh skin and allow products to absorb. This will maximize the effectiveness of your skin care products. A moisture-enhancing mask that you put on and wipe off will moisturize and plump skin that may be dry and dehydrated.

    Product Recommendations:



    References:


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